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Battle of Passchendele 1917
Transcript of Battle of Passchendele 1917
Tear Gas and Mustard Gas (BATTLE OF PASSCHENDAELE) July 31 - November 10, 1917 Basic INVOLVED VS Important Generals British commander:
General Haig Canadian commander:
Sir Arthur Currie Overview Canada's Involvement Gains From the Battle Strategy and Plans "Passchendaele was indeed one of the greatest disasters of the war ... No soldier of any intelligence now defends this senseless campaign ..."
~ Lloyd George The Victoria Cross was earned by 9 Canadians. Casualties Aswell...
90,000 bodies of the British and the Dominion troops were never identified.
42,000 were never
recovered. ALLIES Private Tommy Holmes Captain Christopher O’Kelly Sergeant George Mullin, Allies:
Break through the German defences Corporal Colin Barron, German:
To keep the strategic location of Passchendaele Private Cecil Kinross Lieutenant Robert Shankland. Major George Pearkes Private James Peter Robertson Lieutenant Hugh McKenzie GERMAN 325 000 casualties 260 000 casulties "Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall, and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."
- Field Marshall Earl Haig, Order of the Day, 12 April 1918. Germans U Boats Tanks Seige of Darkness Coming to theaters near you Friday, May 31, 2013 Bayonets Machine Guns Rifles BASICS
WHO WON THE BATTLE
GAINS AND HONORARY PEOPLE Allies Tanks What took place >The First Battle of Ypres took place in the same area
>The battlefield was a disaster
>General Haig sent troops into battle against all advice Oct. 26 Oct. 30 Early Oct. July- Oct. Nov. 6 Nov. 10 -The Allies- mainly British, French and Australian troops at the time
-The goal was to take Passchendaele ridge
-The initial attacks barely did anything and caused high casualties Canadian soldiers were ordered to relieve the soldiers despite General Arthur Currie's protests. > Canadian assaults started
> Frontal attacks were difficult
>Advanced to the outskirts of the Passchendaele village >80% of Allied troops were killed by this point >Battle finally ends with one final attack
>Only 6 km was gained in the end. Weapons >2 British divisions attacked from the right
>French division attacked from the left.
>Germans held their ground. > Canadians arrived for battle How it was conducted
>The 3rd division attacked the valley of the Ravebeek River.
>Barely captured Bellevue Spur
>The 4th division attacked the south of the valley
>Successful, but with high causalities > The 3rd division tried to capture Bellevue Spur, but were not successful
> The 4th division launched an attack partway up the Passchendaele ridge. Previous advance Previous advance Previous advances > 1st and 2nd division reinforce and replace the original divisions.
>The 1st Division attacked Passchendaele Ridge
>The 3rd Battalion protected the northern flank of the assault > The 2nd division assaulted Passchendaele village and were successful > General Haig gives the attack signal
> An attack is launched from Passchendaele ridge.
> Battle ends after 3 months >Reinforcements arrives. The remaining soldiers advanced the final 100 meters to Passchendaele village. Along with standard WW1 weapons (machine guns, flamethrowers, etc.) the following were used: > Tanks were attempted to be used but the mud rendered it impossible, making their use questionable >Artillery and shells caused the most damage. 4.25 million shells were used >Allied troops were severely burned and killed from the use of mustard gas BACKGROUND INFO >The troop used the "bite and hold" strategy Oct. 26: The Canadian 3rd and 4th division attacks: Who Won the Battle Allies Bayonets Maxim Gun Lewis Gun November 10, 1917 Lee Enfield TIMELINE OF EVENTS BACKGROUND INFO >The First Battle of Ypres took place in the same area
>The battlefield was a disaster
>General Haig sent troops into battle against all advice We were given the almost impossible to do, and did it.
~Lieutenant-Colonel Agar Adamson Sub-Battles Battle of Menin Road Ridge Sept 20-25 Battle of Polygon Wood Sept 26 Battle of Broodseinde Oct 4 Battle of Poelcapelle Oct 9 First Battle of Passchendaele Oct 20 Battle of Malmaison Oct 23 - Nov 2 Second Battle of Passhendaele Oct 26 - Nov 10 July 31st 1917- The move from Ypres October 1917 October 17th October 26, 1917: 3rd Division and 4th Division Oct 26: 3rd division October 30 1917 4TH Division 4TH DIVISION SMALL VICTORY Canadians that fought at ypres (1915-1916) shocked at the landscape they saw, everything was destroyed Canadians work to extend tranport system in the muddied ground , facing horrible conditions Canadian corps split, due to valley of the Ravebeek River. 3rd Division was to attack the Bellevue Spur on the north ridge and advance 1,200 metres toward Passchendaele. Germans quickly retaliate with massive shelling and force the Canadians back Oct 26th 1917 Objective: Attack south of the morass that had been the valley of the Ravebeek River, up the Passchendaele Ridge. It was successful, the division was able to move its lines 700 metres closer to Passchendaele. Bibliography http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/tml/article-eng.asp?id=4&y=2012&m=10 3rd division http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/passchendaele/025016-901-e.html Exhausted soldiers of both Divisions are replaced with fresh battalions, the 3rd division is now given the formidable task of capturing the remaining length of Bellevue Spur. Heavy German opposition and artillery fire crush their efforts. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_of_passchendaele.htm http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/feature/passchendaelehttp:// www.kingandempire.com/pdale_overview.html Individual feats of bravery again save the day, and they manage to capture two major German defences at Source and Vapour Farms OCT 30TH 1917 http://www.kingandempire.com/g3_P.html launches a three-pronged attack from the stronghold it had established partway up Passchendaele Ridge. They have great difficulty determining where to attack The attack goes according to plan. Although suffering heavy casualties, they capture a series of fortified buildings - Vienna Cottages and Crest Farm - both near Passchendaele. Seize the highlands of Passchendaele Ridge November 6, 1917 From there capture the German-occupied Belgian channel ports DIVISION SWITCH Push the Germans out of northern France and Belgium The depleted battalions of the 3rd and 4th Battalions are withdrawn and their replacements are fresh soldiers from the 1st and 2nd. 1st and 3rd Division tactics The 1st Division, emerging from the Bellevue Spur, is to attack Passchendaele Ridge from the north. The 3rd Battalion from Toronto protects the northern flank of the assault by seizing a fortified farm that was pouring machine-gun fire into the Canadian attack. This allows everything to go as planned and the 1st Division's assault is a huge success. 2nd Division Nov 6 , 1917 2nd Division's assault is directly on what remained of Passchendaele Village, it was remarkably successful. The fighting is often hand-to-hand as the Germans try desperately to hang on November 10, 1917 Canadians are now firmly established on top of the Passchendaele Ridge. However, German soldiers still cling to the slopes east of the village. A final attack is launched to secure their hard-won position on the ridge. 1st Division successfully captures the German positions and drives them eastward on to the flat plain below. On the southern flank, the 2nd Division is also successful in pushing the Germans off the eastern slopes. The Canadians by now had defeated the germans at Passchendale,and had brought glory to its country. This victory had made themselves known internationally as true patriots and real heros. Stratagies: Triple Entante Stratagies: Triple Alliance