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The Effectiveness of a Price on Carbon to Combat Climate Cha

this is a presentation created by yours truly ashleigh-the boss and others (including kia and olivia)

Daphne Wang

on 30 July 2014

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Transcript of The Effectiveness of a Price on Carbon to Combat Climate Cha

largest contributing greenhouse gas

Will a price on carbon be an effective way to combat climate change?
by: Ashleigh, Daphne, Kia, Olivia & Shirley
Will a carbon price actually decrease the amount of fossil fuels burnt?
What is a carbon price?
Should all countries pay a carbon price or just the bigger emitters?
Nitrous Oxide
Who will be affected by the Carbon Tax?
Carbon tax should be paid in accordance to a tax table, with varying payments for which level your amount of emissions becomes categorised into

Today we will cover the following issues when discussing the relationship between a carbon price and climate change:
- is carbon the only thing to worry about?
- who will be affected by carbon tax?
- will a price on carbon actually decrease the amount of fossil fuels burnt?
- should Australia have a carbon tax?
- should all countries pay a carbon price or just the big emitters?
- There are two forms of carbon pricing being implemented globally today, a carbon tax and an emissions trading system
- Applied to carbon pollution to discourage the production of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere
- Polluters pay per tonne of carbon
- Products that rely on carbon materials or manufacturing processes will increase in price
- Finances clean-up of high carbon emitting activities, and further research
Carbon Tax
- A central authority sets a cap on how much a pollutant (CO2) may be released into the atmosphere
- Allocated in the form of permits, allowing companies to emit a certain amount of the pollutant
- The number of permits issued cannot exceed the emissions cap
- Companies who wish to increase their emission may buy permits
- Large emission companies pay for polluting more and sellers are rewarded by reducing emissions
- As the cost for manufacturers increase, they will strive to find cleanlier practices
- Encourages investigation and application of low-carbon practices
- Leading to a cleaner future
Emissions Trading System
The Flow-on Effect
For the average household
extra per week
government compensation
households will recieve compensation
will be compensated enough to cover
Is Carbon
the Only Thing We have to Worry About?
20 times
as harmful as C02
of all emissions are from human activities
unit of nitrous oxide is equivalent to around units of CO2
tons of nitrogen are released into the atmosphere each year
17 million
of total N2O emissions are anthropogenic (human-induced)
Where have carbon prices been put into place?
- Emission trading schemes in 7 key cities and provinces
- Covers 250 million people
- Nationwide approach after 2015
- A few states have introduced the tax
- Emissions trading put in place in 9 states since 2009
- The US Administration has not secured support for a carbon price or a limit on greenhouse gas
The United States
- 2 Canadian provinces (Quebec and British Columbia) have carbon taxes
- Government has no immediate plans for a carbon price

- Nationwide carbon tax of 50 rupees per tonne (less than $A1) of coal produced and imported to India in 2010
- In 2008, an emissions trading scheme was implemented
- Covers forestry, stationary energy, transport, liquid fossil fuels and industrial processes

New Zealand
- Emissions trading scheme to start in 2015
- Targeting 450 of the largest emitters who produce more than 25, 000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions

South Korea
- Carbon tax of ¥289 per tonne ($A3.30) on fossil fuels since 2012
- Half the revenue used to fund low-emissions technologies
- An emissions trading scheme is operating in Tokyo and Saitama, covering 20 million people
- European Union emissions trading scheme started in 2005, expanded to cover 27 counties in the Union, and three non-union members, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway
- Target of 21% cut of 2005 emissions by 2025
- Several countries have implemented a carbon tax including Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK.

- World’s first carbon tax in 1990
- Modifications were made such as a border tax on imported electricity and a lower tax rate on natural gas
- In 2010, Finland’s price on carbon was €20 ($A28.88) per tonne of CO2

- Climate Change Levy in 2001
- Participates in the European Union emissions trading scheme
- New regulations requiring homes from 2016 to have zero emissions for heating, hot water, cooling and lighting

The United Kingdom
- Introduced a carbon tax in 1997 for 3.5% of the market value of fossil fuels
- Revenue will go towards funding for indigenous communities to protect the forests around them as part of the national forest fund
Costa Rica
- Carbon tax on new vehicle sales from 2010
- A carbon tax from 2013 at R120 ($A15) per tonne

South Africa
What evidence is there to support or disclaim the effectiveness of a carbon price?
- “In the first twelve months of the Clean Energy Act's operation, emissions in Australia's electricity sector fell by 7 per cent—equivalent to 12 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. Power generation from brown coal was down by 13 per cent and renewable energy generation grew by 25 per cent. While not all of these changes in the electricity sector can be attributed to the emissions trading scheme, the general consensus amongst analysts is that putting a price on carbon pollution has made polluting energy sources less competitive and renewable energy sources more competitive.”
- OECD reports found taxes reduced CO2 levels with minimum cost
- British Columbia’s implementation of a carbon tax in 2008, led to a 16% drop in fuel use.
- The Grattan Institute argues the long term trend of a reduction in carbon in Australia has occurred since the mid 1970’s independent of a carbon price

review: Will a carbon price actually decrease the amount of fossil fuels burnt?
1. a carbon price (whether a tax or emissions trading system) effectively and efficiently encourages companies to investigate and apply sustainable energy throughout their manufacturing process
2. A vast majority of major countries in the world have or plan to implement a form of carbon pricing. The successful result of carbon pricing can be seen in the rapid decrease of carbon emissions and increase in renewable energy sources in these countries.
3. Major scientific organisations have analysed the results and concluded that a carbon price is the most effective way of reaching a plan to reduce carbon emissions in the future.
20% increase
emissions are
produced by humans
The largest sources of emission of F-gases:
- substitution of ozone depleting substances
- for industry
- transmission and distribution of energy,
3 main categories of fluorinated gases:
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
Has a global warming effect up to
23 000 times
as much as CO2
F- Gases
Why we should have a Carbon Tax
Factors to be taken into account:
1. GDP
2. Population
3. Number of vehicles and greenhouse gas emitters used for financial gain.
Due to all the reasons stated, I believe
carbon tax should only be paid by the big emitters.
At the moment India, Japan, Finland the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Ireland, Costa Rica and South Africa have carbon taxes.
The top 10 emitters in the world emit
of the world total carbon
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Ec.europa.eu, (2014). Fluorinated greenhouse gases - European Commission. [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/index_en.htm [Accessed 11 Jul. 2014].
Epa.gov, (2014). Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Greenhouse Gases Overview | Climate Change | US EPA. [online] Available at: http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases.html [Accessed 10 Jul. 2014].
Greenpeace International, (2014). Other gases. [online] Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/science/other_gases/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2014].
Oceanus Magazine, (2008). Another Greenhouse Gas to Watch: Nitrous Oxide. [online] Available at: http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/another-greenhouse-gas-to-watch--nitrous-oxide [Accessed 10 Jul. 2014].
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Reuters, (2014). Nitrous Oxide, a Greenhouse Gas, Three Times Higher in Rivers than IPCC Estimates. [online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/01/10/idUS213186050120110110 [Accessed 10 Jul. 2014].

Climatechange.gov.au, (2014). Countries acting now | climatechange.gov.au. [online] Available at: http://www.climatechange.gov.au/international/actions/countries-acting-now [Accessed 16 Jul. 2014].
Hartcher, P. (2014). How parlour politics trumped problem-solving and doomed the carbon tax. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/comment/how-parlour-politics-trumped-problemsolving-and-doomed-the-carbon-tax-20140718-zuix7.html [Accessed 20 Jul. 2014].
News, (2014). Factbox: Carbon taxes around the world. [online] Available at: http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2013/10/29/factbox-carbon-taxes-around-world [Accessed 18 Jul. 2014].
Wikipedia, (2014). Carbon pricing in Australia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_pricing_in_Australia [Accessed 21 Jul. 2014].
Wikipedia, (2014). Carbon tax. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_tax [Accessed 18 Jul. 2014].

Usnews.com, (2014). Is a Carbon Tax a Good Idea?. [online] Available at: http://www.usnews.com/debate-club/is-a-carbon-tax-a-good-idea. [Accessed 22 Jul. 2014].
Liberal Party of Australia, (2014). Scrapping the Carbon Tax and Reducing the Cost of Living. [online] Available at: http://www.liberal.org.au/scrapping-carbon-tax-and-reducing-cost-living. [Accessed 22 Jul. 2014].
Dowdey, S. (2014). HowStuffWorks "Carbon Tax Benefits". [online] HowStuffWorks. Available at: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/carbon-tax1.htm [Accessed 22 Jul. 2014].
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Hannam, P. (2014). Big fall in electricity sector emissions since carbon tax. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/environment/climate-change/big-fall-in-electricity-sector-emissions-since-carbon-tax-20140205-320a6.html [Accessed 22 Jul. 2014].
Harrison, D. (2014). Carbon tax savings hard to spot with naked eye. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/national/carbon-tax-savings-hard-to-spot-with-naked-eye-20140719-3c7tm.html [Accessed 22 Jul. 2014].
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The Price of Carbon
The Cost of Carbon

They are not part of the top 10 emitters (excluding India and Japan)
For the 193 countries in the world that are recognised as a sovereign state by the United Nations; they have to pay taxes for 10 countries which have emitted over half of the world’s carbon.
If countries are big enough to emit enough greenhouse gases to be placed in the top emitters list, they should hold financial responsibility for their actions
If they generate that much greenhouse gas emitting activity they should be able to also be able to pay that much, if they have that many factories or other business that can create that pollution
The topic of whether Australia should or should not have carbon tax was an issue was rejected by Tony Abbott. Presently, Prime Minister Tony Abbott has a strong opinion on not having this tax at all, while our last Prime Minister Julia Gillard was strongly agreed to the idea of a carbon tax.
Without the carbon tax Matt Levey, the director of campaigns for consumer advocates Choice says that average households can save as much as $200 every year on their electricity bill. Many airlines have also agreed to lower ticket prices if this is the case too. So as the carbon tax was rising every year many Australians were complaining and doubting the rising price will actually make a difference to our rising carbon emissions. Although it is true our carbon emissions are soaring many citizens are complaining this tax will not make an effect, lowering our carbon emissions at all thus arguing their point, it definitely won’t slow down climate change. Others are arguing that it will just help pay off the governments debts although this is not true. As many complainers there are, they are just as many scientists, politicians (Greens Party) and other Earth-loving people out there are arguing that this is the best time to put in a carbon tax to stop the overflowing C02 emissions.

Should Australia have a carbon tax?
-It encourages big businesses to rely on natural power sources, updating cooling and heating systems to more energy efficient ones thus lowering the use of fossil fuels
-It encourages individuals to use more public transport and using more natural sources of energy for their homes, such as solar power
-It encourages companies to indulge in more energy efficient, environmental friendly power sources and cost-competitive prices with cheaper fuels
-All in all the carbon tax is encouraging our citizens to use less power and energy by making the prices of carbon emissions higher than ever and encourages finding new ways to making energy efficient power sources with the hopeful ending of slowing down Earth’s climate change

-Rising costs every year, saves hundreds of dollars
-Adds to all costs of living, more expensive gas and electricity bills, air fares etc
-Making it hard for businesses to operate, making everything in the economy more costly which combined with the second point can cause huge struggles for many families
-Arguments stating it will not have an effect on carbon usage as normal people will just emit as much C02 as they normally do
-Rumours that the tax will just help our government pay off debts

Why we shouldn’t have carbon tax
An article from the Sydney Morning Herald has written that Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector are down about 7.6% since the carbon tax was introduced in July 2012 (written during February of 2014) which is equivalent to 14.8 million tonnes. As I asked some of my friends for their opinions on this most had said yes because it gives us an actual chance to help on this issue but a few also said no. The nos say that the 7.6% is not a big difference but in my opinion it is a big number and if this continues every year it will make a big difference to our Earth
Interesting Fact
Our country emits quite a low amount of CO2 compared to many others but as an individual we take the first few spots

Does the Carbon Tax actually make a difference?
Clark, D. (2012). What is a carbon price and why do we need one?. [online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/jul/16/carbon-price-tax-cap [Accessed 13 Jul. 2014].
Carbontax.net.au, (2014). What is the carbon tax? | Carbon Tax | The Facts about the Carbon Tax. [online] Available at: http://www.carbontax.net.au/category/what-is-the-carbon-tax/ [Accessed 18 Jul. 2014].
News, (2014). Factbox: Carbon taxes around the world. [online] Available at: http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2013/10/29/factbox-carbon-taxes-around-world [Accessed 16 Jul. 2014].
Aph.gov.au, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Clean_Energy_Legislation/report/~/media/Committees/Senate/committee/ec_ctte/Clean_Energy_Legislation/report/c03.ashx [Accessed 18 Jul. 2014].
The Globe and Mail, (2014). The shocking truth about B.C.’s carbon tax: It works. [online] Available at: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/the-insidious-truth-about-bcs-carbon-tax-it-works/article19512237/ [Accessed 19 Jul. 2014].
by exploring these five questions we can conclusively say that a carbon price will effectively combat rising temperatures and climate change.
It will ensure that this is achieved through with minimal financial disruption and within the least amount of time
Will a price on carbon be an effective way to combat climate change?
And also:
Climate Reality, (2013). The Cost of Carbon. [video] Available at: [Accessed 23 Jul. 2014].
Climate Reality, (2013). The Price of Carbon. [video] Available at: [Accessed 23 Jul. 2014].
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