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Relative Clauses in English (2º Bach)

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by

Manuel Gonzalez

on 10 April 2016

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Transcript of Relative Clauses in English (2º Bach)

Relative Clauses
Relative pronouns
Relative clauses give additional information about a noun in the main clause (antecedent):

The book
that I've just read
is quite exciting.
1) DEFINING relative clauses:
(especificativas):
2) NON-DEFINING relative clauses:
"explicativas":
They are
the link
between the main clause and
the relative clause.

They are,
according to the antecedent
, the following:
Antecedent

Relative clause Main clause
The relative clause ALWAYS comes after the antecedent.
There are two types:
They "define" the antecedent and
restrict
its meaning.
The information they give is
ESSENTIAL
, and if we omit the relative clause the whole meaning of the sentence is affected.
NO COMMAS
are used.
Ex.:
The noise that the car made woke me up.

That's the man who robbed the bank.
Ex.:
Dorothy, who teaches in my school, is retiring.

London, where I spent my summer holidays, is an interesting city.
They give
ADDITIONAL
information about the antecedent, which is "known", it is already defined.
The relative clause is
NOT ESSENTIAL
. We can omit it with no alteration in meaning in the main clause. It's similar to using brackets ().
We use
COMMAS
(pauses in spoken language)
WHO :
for people.
The man
who
robbed the bank has been arrested
WHOM
: for people when it is the Direct Object and after a preposition.
(Formal language)
This is the woman. I met her at the party
.
Od
This is the woman
whom
I met at the party.
In less formal language
who / that
are used:
This is the woman
who / that
I met at the party.
BUT:
If the relative pronoun comes
after a preposition
,
only
WHOM
can be used.

Ex.:
That's the woman
to whom
I gave the letter.
WHICH:
for things and animals
This is the picture
which
caused sensation.
That’s the cat
which
scratched me.
THAT
: It can be used instead
of
WHO(M)
and
WHICH
.
But only in DEFINING clauses!!!
This is the picture
that
caused sensation.
The car
that
I hired broke down.
(More informal or colloquial)
WHOSE
:
possessive case
(people, things, animals)
Translated as CUYO/A/OS/AS
That's the teacher.
His
daughter is in my class.
That's the teacher
whose
daughter is in my class
.
John is a great writer. John
's
book was a best-seller.
John,
whose
book was a best-seller, is a great writer
.
(It can never be omitted)
WHAT
: with no antecedent (the antecedent is implicit, that is, it was mentioned before, or it is "understood" by the speakers)
Usually translated as "lo que", or "eso que"
What
we saw surprised us.
(The thing we saw is not mentioned, the speakers already know about it)
That's not
what
you promised.
(We know what you promised).
WHERE
: for places.
Only when it can be translated as "
DONDE
"
That is the house
where
I was born.
London,
where
I live, is the capital city of England.
In which
is also possible:
That is the house
in which
I was born.
(Formal language)
BUT
:
London is a place
which / that
I like.
(It can't be translated as "donde")
WHEN:
for time.
Usually translated as "CUANDO"
I remember the days
when
I was young
.
THAT/ IN WHICH
are sometimes possible:
I remember the day
when / that
we met.
The time
in which
he lived ....
WHY
: for cause or reason
In the expressions:
"The reason why ... "
or
"That's why"
The reasons why
they live here are unknown.
That's (the reason) why
I hit him.
OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE
PRONOUN

WHO(M) / WHICH / THAT
can be omitted in these cases:
When they function as the
Object.
With a
preposition.
Only in
DEFINING
clauses.
For example:
The girls are always beautiful. He employs the girls.
We have several options:
Od
The girls
whom
he employs are always beautiful.
(very formal)
The girls
who
he employs are always beautiful
(less formal)
The girls
that
he employs are always beautiful.
(informal)
The girls he employs are

always beautiful.
(more informal)
An example with a preposition:
The picture
(which / that)
you are looking
at
was painted by Miró.
(
Which
and
that
can be omitted BUT if the
preposition comes before the relative
, it can't).
The picture
at which
you are looking at was painted by Miró.
(Here,
THAT
is not correct, and the relative
WHICH
can't be omitted)
There is a very simple rule to know if the relative pronoun can be omitted or not.
Relative pronoun
+
Verb
Subject
No omission of relative pronoun
Give me the clips
that


are in the box.
Sj.
V
Relative pronoun
+
Subject
+
Verb
Object
Relative pronoun can be omitted
The woman
(who)
he married is my sister.
O
S
v
AND THAT'S ALL !!!!!
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