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People in History

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by

Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 28 December 2016

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Transcript of People in History

People in History
The Life of a Reformer - Martin Luther

People in History Question
1. Read the question carefully
2. Underline the key words
3. Plan your answer
4. 5- 6 paragraphs/2 a4 pages
5. Use a clear, logical order of events.
6. Use key words and key dates, be specific and keep it factual.
7. You are not telling a story you are informing the reader about a time in history.
8. In the final paragraph list the consequences/ impact of the event or person.
Martin Luther - Early Life
Martin Luther - Going to Heaven
Luther was a holy man who was worried about
salvation
(going to heaven).
He was worried that God would not forgive sinners like himself.
He studied the bible and found his answer there. He read that 'the just man shall live by faith alone'.
This was called
justification by faith.
By this he meant that doing good deeds or works, such as praying to the saints or
gaining indulgences
(pardons for sins), would not help a person to get to heaven. He said that
only faith in God
would allows a person to go to heaven.
Sale of Indulgences
In 1517 a Dominican Friar,
John Tetzel
, came to Wittenberg to preach and sell indulgences. He was given permission by the Pope to do so.
Tetzel said that anybody could buy an indulgence to get to heaven. Half of the money collected was to be used to pay for the building of
St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
The other half was to go to the
Archbishop of Mainz
to pay back a large amount of money he had borrowed to buy bishoprics (simony).
Tetzel frightened people into buying indulgences.
Luther's 95 Theses
Luther objected to Tetzel's preaching.
He wrote
95 Theses
(arguments) against the sale of indulgences.
He wrote them in
Latin
, the language of scholars, because he wanted to discuss his views with others.
He did not set out to begin a rebellion against the Catholic Church.
It is often written that he nailed them to the
church door
of Wittenberg Castle but historians now accept that this may not have happened.
Luther wrote to the
Archbishop of Mainz
, complaining about the false impressions which people had about indulgences.
He included a copy of his
95 Theses
with his letter.
The Peace of Augsburg
A civil and religious war broke out in Germany and lasted for nine year Even though the Catholic princes and the emperor won some battles, Lutheranism was too strong in Germany to be defeated.
What caused the Reformation?
Abuses x 4
Renaissance
Martin Luther was born in Eisleben in Germany in 1483.
He studied to become a lawyer but he changed his mind.
He joined the
Augustinian Order
to become a monk and a priest.
He later became a Professor of Theology at
Wittenberg University
in Saxony.
Support for Luther's Views
Luther won support for his views.
The 95 Theses were translated into
German
and were then
printed
, so Luther's views were spread all over Germany very quickly.
Some Germans
objected
to paying money to Rome.
They also said that priests were ignorant.
Rome Responds to Luther
Luther was ordered to meet
Cardinal Cajetan
.
The cardinal tried to persuade Luther to change his ideas, but Luther refused.
Next, the Pope arranged a public debate between Luther and
John Eck
. In the debate, Luther questioned the authority of the Pope.
Eventually, in 1520, the Pope sent a special papal letter called a
papal bull
to Luther. In this, the Pope said that Luther would be
excommunicated
if he did not withdraw his teachings.
Luther burned the papal letter in public to show his dislike of the Pope.
The Pope excommunicated Luther.
The Emperor Intervenes
Charles V
became Holy Roman Emperor in 1519.
He ruled lands in Germany, Spain, Italy, Holland, Belgium and the New World.
He sponsored the voyage of Magellan.
The Pope wanted Charles V to deal with Luther.
By now Luther had published many pamphlets, and his views won even more support.
The Diet of Worms
The emperor called a
Diet (parliament)
of the German princes and rulers to meet at
Worms (near Mainz in Germany)
in 1521.
Luther was asked to go there by the emperor and he would not be harmed.
Luther spoke before the Diet and
refused to withdraw
his teachings.
After Luther left the Diet, the emperor issued the
Edict (Order) of Worms
. 'If you have sufficient force, y
ou shall take Luther prisoner
and deliver him to us.'
Fredrick the Wise
a supporter of Luther took him to
Wartburg Castle
so that he would be safe.
While there he translated the
News Testament into German.
Now ordinary Germans could read the Bible for themselves.
Luthernaism Spreads
Even though emperor Charles V issued the Edict of Worms against Luther, he could do little to enforce it.
The emperor was busy with other problems in his huge empire.
Many princes had now become
Lutheran
.
They
protested
to the emperor that they were entitled to practise their own religion. They became
Protestant
.
DivIsions
between Catholic and Protestant princes grew in Germany.
The emperor Charles V rejected the
Confession of Augsburg
, which was a statement of Lutheran beliefs.
Lutherans took over Catholic churches and built some of their own.
However,
Luther died
in 1546 before war broke out between the two sides.
The war was eventually ended by the Peace of Augsburg (1555). The main point of the treaty was that each ruler was free to decide the religion of his or her state. Catholics living in Lutheran states had to leave as did Lutherans living in Catholic states.
Describe what you think is happening here
Abuses
Reform
Protest
Catholic
What do you remember?
Augustinian Order
Justification by Faith
John Tetzel
St. Peter's Basilica Rome
95 Theses
Church Door Wittenberg Castle
Archbishop of Mainz
Printed
Cardinal Cajetan
excommunicated
Charles V
Diet of Worms/Edict
Fredrick the Wise
Protestant
Peace of Augsburg
Full transcript