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Japanese Imperialism in China
Transcript of Japanese Imperialism in China
By: Patrick Banks, Daniel Kirmse, Judah Chin, and John-Michael Aguirre Industrialization in Japan: Sino-Japanese Wars: The First Sino-Japanese War lasted from August 1, 1894, to April 17, 1895. It took place in what is now South Korea between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan. By March of 1895, the Japanese had taken over Manchuria and the province of Shandong. The war ended with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which gave Korea its independence, gave Taiwan, the Pescadores Islands, and the Liaodong Peninsula to Japan, and forced China to pay 200,000,000 taels to Japan. Rape of Nanking: In December of 1937, the Japanese army marched through the streets of Nanking, the capital of China at the time. The Japanese began to relentlessly massacre both the Chinese soldiers and the civilians. Many of the Japanese soldiers were involved in mass rape, public executions, and destruction of property. People were buried alive, beaten, and dragged from their homes. During the massacre, Nazi camps were set up as safe zones for the Chinese. This brutal torture of the Chinese people continued until March of 1938. The death count was set between 150,000 and 300,000, and by the end of December, over 20,000 cases of rape had been reported.
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•https://gordon.wiki.ccsd.edu/file/view/industrialization.jpg/34086937/industrialization.jpg Works Cited: Meiji Restoration: Until the 19th century, Japan had closed off their boarders to outsiders and place heavy restrictions on Japanese development. In 1868, a group of samurai from the Satsuma and Chosun clans led an attack on the Tokugawa shogunate. The samurai overcame the shogun's military, and restored the emperor to power. With the fall of the Shogunate, and the rise of Emperor Meiji, Japan selectively adopted many western ideas and technologies. With the perfect blend of traditional and modern ideas, Japan began to thrive and expand. Chinese Military Resistance: The Chinese military under the command of Chiang Kai-Shek was being defeated by the Japanese at every battle. After many losses, the fighting changed into regional battles which mainly consisted of stalling and holding off Japanese movement led by communist forces. Throughout the conflict, China was aided by the U.S., who after Pearl Harbor poured resources into China allowing better resistance, and slowly exhausting Japanese resources. Leaders of the Chinese independence movement: Chaing Kai-Shek: Chaing Kai-Shek rose to power after a revolution overthrew the Qing Dynasty, and the rebel leader Sun Yat-sen died. He expanded the Republic of China beyond its borders, and soon controlled most of Northern China. During this time, he began to become pressured by a communist movement led by Mao Zedong and the Japanese. Japan soon captured Manturia creating a war with China. During the war, Chaing withheld his forces saving them for the fight with the communists, and after WW11, the Chinese Communist Revolution began. Chaing was soon over run, and fled to Taiwan where he set up the Republic of China. Mao Zedong: Mao Zedong was the leader of the communist reforms in China. After the formation of the Republic of China and control was handed to Chiang Kai-Shek, the communist party began to push for reform. During the Sino-Japanese War, Mao led forces against Japan and held them off. After WW II, Mao focused his attention to the Republic of China. Within months, Mao had succeeded in defeating Chiang and the Republic of China, and in its place, he set up the People's Republic of China. Discussion Question: To what extent was Japanese imperialism responsible for World War 1 and World War 11? During WW I, Japan declares war on Germany in hopes of "expanding its Pacific empire". During WW II, Japan attacks the U.S., "provoking the states" to enter the war on the side of the Allies, this leads to the eventual defeat of the Axis powers. First Sino-Japanese War: Second Sino-Japanese War: The Second Sino-Japanese War officially took place in China from July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945. The war was fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. This was Japan's attempt to fully conquer China and take control of its raw materials and other natural resources. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Second Sino-Japanese War became part of World War II as the United States entered the conflict. The war ended with the official surrender of the Japanese after the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. With their surrender, Japan gave Manchuria, Taiwan, and the Pescadores Islands back to the Chinese. Resources: Imperial ideology of Japan: One of the main reasons that the Japanese went to war was to gain control over China and Korea's natural resources. Japan itself had very little natural resources and had to import many materials to support its growing economy. After the Meiji Restoration, a great number of economic and social reforms were made in an attempt to industrialize Japan. Feudalism was abolished, and the Samurai were removed from power. Japan then created a new army, modeling it after those of the United States and the European Nations. In 1870, the government formed the Ministry of Industry, which created large state-run factories. These factories provided workers with training, and played a crutail role in the industrialization of Japan. Japanese cultural attitudes: Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was a plan to conquer the nations of Eastern Asia in an attempt to create a self sufficient alliance of Nations. The Sphere was planned by Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe, and consisted of two different groups of states. The first group consisted of territories that would either become part of Japan, or that would be directly under the control of Japan. The second group was made up of several tightly-controlled pro-Japanese vassal states based on the model of Manchukuo. These were supposedly going to be independent from Japan, but still remained part of the Sphere. Japanese-governed:
•Empire of Japan
•Japanese Home Islands including the Ryuku Islands, Southern Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands, as well as Korea.
•Kwantung Leased Territory
Southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula.
•Government-General of Formosa
Formosa (Taiwan), Hong Kong, Macau (to be purchased from Portugal), the Paracel Islands, Hainan Island (to be purchased from the Chinese puppet regime).•
•South Seas Government Office
Guam, Nauru, Ocean Island, the Gilbert Islands and Wake.
•Melanesian Region Government-General or South Pacific Government-General
British New Guinea, Australian New Guinea, the Admiralties, New Britain, New Ireland, the Solomon Islands, the Santa Cruz Archipelago, the Ellice Islands, the Fiji Islands, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and the Chesterfield Islands.
•Eastern Pacific Government-General
Hawaii, Howland Island, Baker Island, the Phoenix Islands, the Rain Islands, the Marquesas and Tuamotu Islands, the Society Islands, the Cook and Austral Islands, all of the Samoan Islands, and Tonga.
All of Australia including Tasmania. According to Japanese History Book:
“In August, hostilities broke out in Shanghai and the flames of war spread south...Japan continuously committed a large army [to the area], and occupied the Nationalist government capital in Nanjing by the end of the year...Because the Nationalist government retreated from Nanjing to Hankou and the further inland to Chonqing and persistently continued to resist, the Sino-Japanese war became a quagmire-like drawn-out war.”
A foot note from the book reads:
“In addition to repeated looting and violence within and outside Nanjing at the time of its fall, the Imperial Japanese Army murdered a large number of Chinese noncombatants (including women and children) and prisoners (Nanjing incident).”
In 1995, a right-wing political party in Japan took out a full page ad in the New York Times claiming the Rape of Nanking never took place. In Japanese textbooks from the 1980s the only reference to the "Rape of Nanking" was a footnote that called it the "Nanking Incident." According to Modern and Contemporary Chinese History, Book One:
“Wherever Japanese went, they committed all manners of crimes: arson, homicide rape and looting. In December, 1937, Japanese armies occupied Nanjing ad massacred the city’s peaceful residents, the ultimate act of human cruelty. Within six weeks more than 300,000 Chinese civilians and unarmed soldiers in Nanjing were murdered. The means of massacre were extremely brutal. Some victims were bayoneted some were were buried alive; some were cremated alive.”
“The Japanese military commander, Tani Hisao, and his troops entered Nanjing and killed whoever they saw. At the time, numerous refugees, unarmed Chinese citizens and wounded were crowded into the city. They were killed by Japanese soldiers manically shooting with machine guns, rifles and pistols. Crowds of old people, women and children were felled.”
“The Japanese armies also smashed their way into civilian houses and randomly killed residents living peacefully in Nanjing. They hauled a young man into the street, stripped his clothes, poured aqua fortis [nitric acid solution] on his body and forced him walk until his death; they tied captured soldiers on pillars, stabled them with awls till they became bleeding bodies, and finally thrust bayonets into their throats; they also gang raped pregnant women, cut open their wombs and took out the embryos to play with on the top of their bayonets.”
Definition of Imperialism as defined by the Merriam-Webster online dictionary: im·pe·ri·al·ism noun
2 : the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas; broadly : the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence. The imperial ideology of Japan arose after the Meiji Restoration. A strong sense of nationalism helped fuel the new desire to become a world power. The need for natural resources pushed Japan into Korea, and its goal of conquering East Asia continued to push them farther inland. The rapid industrial growth of Japan and the very successful military reforms let to a sense of superiority, eventually fathering new imperial ideas. The complete goals and imperialist beliefs of Japan were later expressed in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Japanese culture during the time of their invasion of China greatly affected haw they waged war. The Japanese viewed themselves as the chosen people of God, and as racially pure. Their society was dominated by men, and honor was the center value of life. The superior ideology surrounding Japan is the cause of such brutal attacks on China and Korea. In events such as the Rape of Nanking, the Japanese soldiers saw the Chinese not as human beings, but as inferior creatures. Puppet states:
Outer Mongolia territories west of Manchuria.
•Republic of China
Parts of China occupied by Japan.
•East Indies Kingdom
Dutch East Indies, British Borneo, Labuan, Sarawak, Brunei, the Cocos and Christmas Islands, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and Portuguese Timor (to be purchased).
•Kingdom of Burma
Burma proper, Assam (a province of the British Raj) and large part of Bengal.
•Kingdom of Thailand
Pre-war Thailand, also expanded with portions of British Malaya, Burma, and French Indochina during the war.
•Second Philippine Republic
•Kingdom of Malaya
Remainder of the Malay states.
•Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia and French Cochinchina.
•Kingdom of Annam
Annam, Laos, and Tongking. •New Zealand Government-General
New Zealand North and South Islands, Macquarie Island, as well as the rest of the Southwest Pacific.
All of India below a line running approximately from Portuguese Goa to the coastline of the Bay of Bengal.
The Alaska Territory, the Yukon Territory, the western portion of the Northwest Territories, Alberta, British Columbia, and Washington.
•Government-General of Central America
Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, British Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Maracaibo (western) portion of Venezuela, Ecuador, Cuba, Haiti, Dominica, Jamaica, and the Bahamas.
•In addition, if either Mexico, Peru or Chile were to enter the war against Japan, substantial parts of these states would also be ceded to Japan. The future of Trinidad, British and Dutch Guiana, and British and French possessions in the Leeward Islands were left open for negotiation with Germany after the war.
•The islands north of the equator that had been seized from Germany in World War I and which were assigned to Japan as C-Class Mandates, namely the Marianas, Carolines, Marshall Islands, and several others do not figure into this project. They were the subject of earlier negotiations with the Germans and were expected to be officially ceded to Japan in return for economic and monetary compensations. A political cartoon from a Japanese newspaper The Master teahces the Apprentince The Apprentince begins to surpass the Master The Apprentince becomes the Master