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The Industrial Revolution
Transcript of The Industrial Revolution
An era to fend for yourself.
Most wealthy people inherited their money. Their money and houses came from relatives, connections with the government or they were factory owners
1779, Samuel Crompton invented the
Crompton's mule/ Spinning mule
1793, Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin
In Britain, the land was owned by the aristocrats.
Lower Middle class (professions) owned terrace housing which included one- three levels, two- three bedrooms, and a nanny for babysitting.
The working class were generally too poor to hire or buy any sort of vehicle, so they walked everywhere. They lived close to their jobs. Some managed to save enough money to pay for a horse.
As machinery improved over time, clothing started to get cheaper and cheaper. This meant that there was now better quality clothing in greater quantities quality being made at a faster pace, instead of handmade items.
The wealthy had great power and influence over the government. They could use their money to influence or bribe politicians.
Food, shelter & clothing were never a hassle, as they had the money to get the items they needed. They had servants to empty their toilets, cook, clean and wash.
The children of the wealthy were well educated. They went to private schools and also had their own tutors.
The wealthy did not care about the poor, they saw the less wealthy as servants. That they weren't born into rich families meant that it was their destiny to lead a life of servitude.
medical care was affordable for the rich
The first weaving machine was
invented in 1733.
Kay's flying shuttle
this is a modernized version
in 1767, James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny
1769, Richard Arkwright
1785, Edmund Cartwright invented the
Upper Middle Class
The working class women wore colourful dresses and if they were working they would wear a white apron on top. The boys would wear baggy pants and a long sleeved shirt, mostly bare feet.
By the late 1700’s greater demand for clothing increased the consumption of cotton.
For all classes, clothing was brightly coloured, due to aniline dyes invented in 1856 by W.H Perkins
lace was very popular at the start of the industrial revolution
In the Victorian era women and girls were not allowed to wear pants or shorts. All they could wear were dresses with corsets for adult women, making the dress very constricting and tight.
Males wore breeches, waist coats, vests, long coats and three cornered hats. Some adult men would wear wigs.
Boys wore relatively the same thing, with long coats and without the wig
Women wore side panier dresses made of light fabrics, such as lawn, muslin and dimity that went to the ground and the sleeves went to their elbows. Some dresses had silk embroidery, but mostly woven patterns. Women wore cloaks with a hood to protect the dresses in poor weather or if they were very rich, they would use a sedan chair, which is an elegant chair with a hood over it and poles underneath to get servants to carry. Gypsy hats were popular. Young girls wore dresses that went to their knees with white, silk stockings underneath with flat shoes.
Before mass production, men’s coats and waistcoats had silk embroidery on them. They took months to years to make and were often made by the wife or daughter.
In 1750, Urbanization was the key to trigger the Industrial Revolution era. Large numbers of people moved from an agricultural based civilization working on farms, to working with machinery in factories. While this may have benefited the world and the wealthy people of this era, many people struggled to survive even if they did have a job. This was due to poor wages and high costs of living .
The working class were promised secure employment, good working conditions and high wages, by the factory owners; instead, they had long hours and small wages.
Farmers sold clothing in the big square markets.
The rich houses were independent living facilities; they didn't have another house attached. But small farms were usually attached to the sides or the back of the houses. Houses were mansions, with many rooms, servants and large gardens..
The working class lived in slums. Houses were close to their job in the factories, for minimal transport and cost. Houses- poor quality, cheap, unhygienic with high rent, no running water, small yard with a dunny or communal toilet. They were overcrowded often with groups of families all living in one house to give people shelter and it helps pay the rent. Minimal sewage facilities, waste would be near the house in a pile.
Many children died, and few made it to 5 years or older. Diseases such as typhus and cholera were common. Crime waves started, and adults drank a lot.
The people who could not afford the working class slum found shelter in cellar and underneath houses. The cellars often flooded with sewage and rain.
Women and children were payed less than men; children were most favoured as they could pick up skill faster than adults.
There was a high unemployment rate as new machinery took over the tasks traditionally done by workers in factories.
The lower middle class professionals were employed in position such as industrialists, merchants, lawyers, doctors, engineers, architects, accountants and chemists. The jobs that made you a part of the middle class were shopkeepers, traders & manufacturers.
Factory workers worked in extremely dangerous conditions. The machinery was often unsafe and the hours were too long (14 hours or more). Agricultural workers worked for 12 hours a day, and struggled to get enough sleep. Their food lacked good nutrition. There was too much dust in the factories, as they weren’t ventilated properly. As a result of this, the steam powered machinery was dirty and unhygienic which led to illnesses and pollution.
“The Factory Act 1819 (UK) limited working hours for children to a maximum of twelve hours a day.
The Factory Act 1833 (UK) banned children under the age of nine from working in the textiles industry. Children aged 10 to 13 years were limited to a 48-hour working week.
The Factory Act 1850 (UK) limited working hours for women and children to ten and a half hours a day, between 6.00 am and 6.00 pm. After 1874, workers were not allowed to work more than 56.5 hours a week.”
The arrival of machinery cost many skilled workers their jobs. For example the luddites made clothing by hand. They lost their jobs when the loom and power loom were introduced, doing the same tasks more cheaply and faster. From 1811-15, they started to riot through the factories and attempted to destroy the machinery.
In the first half of the 1800s, the government introduced a number of new acts in parliament which improved the conditions of workers in the factories
Skwirk, 2014, Employment, viewed on 13th August 2014,
The children were taught how to read, write, do mathematics and play an instrument.
The rich could afford and had access to the new advances in medical treatments, such as vaccines, developed by Louis Pasteur in 1870; the invention of the x-ray in 1895 by Roentgn; and development of aspirin in 1899.
Because they could afford it, wealthy people were the first to adopt the new transport methods. As the trnasportation methods became more common, they became cheaper and more and more people could afford the mode of transport. the mass transport system, such as ships and trains, people could buy different classes of tickets, which offered different levels of comfort.
Wealthy women would often go on a leisurely stroll.
this machine spins more than one ball of yarn and thread at once.
This cleaned cotton by separating the cotton seeds from cotton fibre. In the southern states of America, more African slaves were imported to work the Cotton Gin.
It was an adaptation of the spinning Jenny and the water frame. The Crompton's mule was the first steam powered weaving machine.
Working class worked in the factories or were employed as domestic servants. They waited on hand and foot to please the rich. Some stole from their employers.
side panier dress
Lawn,Muslin and Dimity
The Industrial Revolution formed the foundation of today’s society.
This era was of great benefit to everyone, with mass production of cheaper goods and clothing, development of transportation, advances in medicines, communication and other technologies. However, it also had a significant negative impact, particularly on the poor. They lived in horrible, squalid conditions and worked long hours, often in unsafe conditions. Demand for raw materials saw slavery increase. But, the rights of slaves and factory workers were later recognized by governments and poor practices were abolished.
The shuttle meant that weaving yarn was faster
It made thread stronger for the yarn and was called the water frame, because it used a water wheel.
This was a steam powered loom, which combined thread to make cloth
Over the period of the Industrial Revolution, there were many great advancements in transportation developed, moving transportation from horse and carriage to steam and diesel powered vehicles, such as ships, trains, cars and airplanes.
With the evolution of the Industrial Revolution, cities underwent rapid expansion. People arrived in the cities to pursue work in the factories and these workers often lived in very poor conditions.
These inventions were the origins of the industrial revolution. Factories were built to house multiple machines, to mass produce fabric and clothing.