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Psychology in Translation
Transcript of Psychology in Translation
1) Kussmaul’s study (1991)
Creative problem-solving paved the way for other studies focusing on creativity in translation
2) Bayer- Hohenwarter
Method of measuring creativity
Two indicators: product creativity- novelty and acceptability of the solutions; process creativity – indicators such as translation time and dwell ratio included
RESULT: Professional translator show more creativity and more routine
3) Rita Jӓӓskelӓinen (1999)
Affective or emotional factors within translations
The role of translators attitudes or personal involvement which may contribute to translation quality
4) Tirkkonen- Condict (2000)
Translators tend to have a high potential ambiguity but in the same time the tolerance to it.
RESULT: Willingness to postpone decisions and perseverance in looking for solutions
What translation psychology is?
Translation psychology is basically what is happening in translating mind during the translation process. The scope of psychology as the field dealing with the workings of the human mind mindranges from:
- cognition : perception, memory, learning, problem solving
- affection emotion : motivation, attitudes
Ex. Bilingual or multilingual memory, which provides the basis for the multilingual acts of communication; the ability to operate between different language systems.
Whether the translating mind is working alone or in interaction with others, translation psychology can be seen as form of reader responses to translated texts.
Different linguistic approaches to translation are built on particular theories of language processing or communication, such as systemic functional linguistics, cognitive linguistics, or relevance theory. It happens because the very way in which we conceptualise 'language' or 'translation' is largely based on our conceptualisations of the human mind.
This presentation aims to show that there is a psychological angle to most translation related phenomena.
Paula Kubacka, Marta Ligmanowska, and Ada Urbaniak
...to translation psychology:
- numerous writings about the translation process by translators themselves in whuch they explained their translation principles or ideologies and the reasons for their translation solutions
- James Holmes (1988), he envisioned a process-oriented branch of Descriptive Translation Studies which he also called 'the psychology of transation' and according to him, translation psychology would carry out research dealing with 'the process of act of translation itself', including 'systematic investigations under labolatory conditions' ( empirical translation process)
- Levy's article (1967\1989) ; Levy views translation as a decision process; he proposes that translators tend to use a 'Minimax strategy, aiming at maximum effect with minimal effort.
The first empirical studies...
into the translation process used mainly think-aloud protocols as research material.
Their focus was on the:
-cognitive aspects involved in translation
-difficulties and the strategies used to solve them
...is a data elicitation method, which provide access to conscious processing and emotional responses of translators. Nowadays, in addition to think-aloud, the pool of research data comprises retrospection, dialogue protocols, keyboard-logging, screen recordings, and eye-tracking.
Most process studies employ multi-method approaches and combine different types of data to assure the highest quality of research results.
The matter of creativity:
-as a literary translation
-when there is no ready-made answer
-part and parcel of the cognitive problem-solving
“TRANSLATION IS A COGNITIVELY COMPLEX AND DEMANDING TASK, BUT IT IS NOT A COMPLETELY MYSTERIOUS TALENT THAT CANNOT BE LEARNT OR EXPLAINED.”
5) Hubscher – Davidson (2009)
Identification of translators’ personalities
Its influence on task performance
Types of translation personality: intuitive type and sensing type.
RESULT: Different translation tasks favored different translation personality; Tested personality not only for selecting best translation task but also for assessing students’ strengths and weaknesses as translators.
6) Jones (2011)
Literary, poetry translation
Analysis the politics and networks of poetry translation
RESULT: shows the way translation projects and teams work as well as the translators’ motivation and attitudes.
7) Kolb (2011)
Examines the translation process of a short story by Ernest Hemingway
RESULT: Methods used by translators to examined the questions by looking at the way in which the translators deal with repetition universals (avoidance of repetition, disambiguation by explicitation).
Didactics: competence and expertise
Translation didactics deals with the way in which translators and interpreters are educated.
Translation competence is comprised of several sub-competences, such as the strategic and the instrumental (the skills related to use translation tools) sub-competence. Investigating them will offer useful tools for improving translation didactics and translator training programmes.
The bigger picture of this study
Translation psychology may be understood not only as a set of features of good translator, but also in reference to the receiver.
Research into translation psychology highlights the complexity translation phenomenon. It also illustrates the close connection between translation psychology and translation sociology.
Scoring & Results
Add up one point for each of your answers, in the right category. The one with more points is your preference within each scale.
Extroverted (E): 1A, 5A, 9A, 13A, 17A, 21A, 25A, 29A, 33A, 37A, 41A, 45A, 49A, 53A
Introverted (I): 1B, 5B, 9B, 13B, 17B, 21B, 25B, 29B, 33B, 37B, 41B, 45B, 49B, 53B
Sensation (S): 2A, 6A, 10A, 14A, 18A, 22A, 26A, 30A, 34A, 38A, 42A, 46A, 50A, 54A
Intuition (N): 2B, 6B, 10B, 14B, 18B, 22B, 26B, 30B, 34B, 38B, 42B, 46B, 50B, 54B
Thinking (T): 3A, 7A, 11A, 15A, 19A, 23A, 27A, 31A, 35A, 39A, 43A, 47A, 51A, 55A
Feeling (F): 3B, 7B, 11B, 15B, 19B, 23B, 27B, 31B, 35B, 39B, 43B, 47B, 51B, 55B
Perceiving (P): 4A, 8A, 12A, 16A, 20A, 24A, 28A, 32A, 36A, 40A, 44A, 48A, 52A, 56A
Judging (J): 4B, 8B, 12B, 16B, 20B, 24B, 28B, 32B, 36B, 40B, 44B, 48B, 52B, 56B
Now write your preferences from each scale one after the other - this is your Jungian type.
Myers and Briggs developed Jung’s theories into a usable methodology and
system for understanding and assessing people’s personality.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
ISTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ISTP, ISFP, INFP, INTP, ESTP,
ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ, and ENTJ
Extraversion (E)------------------ Introversion (I)
Sensing (S) ------------------------ Intuitive (N)
Thinking (T) ---------------------- Feeling (F)
Judging (J) ------------------------ Perceiving (P)
Results of the experiment
The experiment showed that a personality type has a great impact on the translation competence.
People more intuitive are tend to be more creative and predicting so they are much better in translating narrative
Intuitive translators have an advantage over sensing ones in reading comprehension,
in which one of the phases is guessing the meanings of words. Intuitive
translators are more successful because they are at ease with guessing, predicting
and other compensation strategies
35 translation students
3 texts and 3 methods
goal: investigating connection between personality and translation
English to Persian