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Copy of Qual II--Week 1

Anderson, Anzaldua, Ortner
by

Jerry Rosiek

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Qual II--Week 1

Qualitative Research Methodology II: Critical and Postcritical Approaches
Week 1
US
The Course
Discussion
Truth about Truth:Anderson
Troubling Clarity: Patti Lather
Borderland Studies: Anzaldua
Themes
Introduce Foucault/Poststructuralism
Gots and Needs
US
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
Poetic Origin
(onomatopoeia)
historical inquiry
(diachronic)
structural inquiry
(synchronic)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
The Word
(la parole)
rules or structure of a language
rules or structure of a language
rules or structure of a language
rules or structure of a language
Universal Structure
of Language
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
rules or structure of a culture
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
rules or structure of a culture
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
rules or structure of a culture
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
rules or structure of a culture
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
A Cultural
Practice
Universal Structure
of Culture
Functional Origin
Ehtnographic inquiry plus historical speculation
(diachronic)
structural inquiry
(synchronic)
Verbs, nouns, verb tense,
sentence structure
Binary Oppositions,
Kinship Systems,
Totems
Male
Female
+
Strong
Active
Rational
Abstract
Reproduces Culture
-
violent
domineering
wasteful
cold
--
Weak
Passive
Irrational
Emotional
Reproduces Nature
+
nurturing
resourceful
nice
compliant
quiet
Male
Female
gay
lesbian
bisexual
transgender
intersex
asexual
Taboo: Association with this marks you as an outsider to the larger community.
Sacred: Knowledge of this is part of a specialized form of high status knowledge that confers both privilege and marginality. (e.g. priesthood, academic, lawyer, etc.)
Borderland Studies
Those who have experiences in this liminal zone understand the artifical nature of the performances that mark them as a member of one category or the other by necessity. This understanding makes them particularly salient sources of insight into the operation of certain cultural discourses.
Linguistic Structuralism
Cultural Structuralism
Gloria Anzaldua
Borderlands/La Frontera
The Course
“To live in the Borderlands means...
...people walk through you, the wind steals your voice,
you’re a burra, buey, scapesgoat,
forerunner of a new race,
half and half—both woman and man, neither—
a new gender;

In the Borderlands
you are a battleground
where your enemies are kin to each other;
you are at home, a stranger,
To survive the Borderlands
you must live sin fronteras
be a crossroads." (216-7)
Introduction to Post-Structuralism
Signifier
Signified
arbitrary relationship
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
Word
Object
word
word
word
word
word
poetic origin
Signifier
Each signifier supplements the previous.

Stability of meaning is provided by linguistic structure, not by the relationship of word and object
structure
structure
Signified
Foucault's Semiotics
Discourse
Object of Study
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
structure
Signifier
Foucault, however, is not interested in a deep structure, as much as he is using Levi-Strauss's notion of cultural structures to destabilize the way we have naturalized the cultural constructs we currently live in.
Foucault applied structuralism to the operation of "disciplinary" discourses--medicine, mental health, criminology, the humanities, etc. He used his methods of geneaology to highlight the arbitrary way our communities have shifted from one discursive construction of an object of study to another (e.g. from madness to mental health).
Foucault's Panopticon
Foucault was primarily interested in how different disciplinary discourses produced different subjectivities. Je used the metaphor of a prison design known as the panopticon to describe the functioning of modern society.
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
Signifier
structure
Signifier
discursive
rules
discursive rules
Juxtaposition
not synthesis
Prisoners and citizens in a panoptic system end up internalizing the "gaze" of those surveilling them. Not because they agree, but because they must to function and survive. The habituation shapes their subjectivity whether or not they oppose it. They are "subjected", made into subjects.
A few modern binaries that coercively organize our society
-
+
+
-
Abled/Disabled
Male/Female
White/Non-White
Professional/Unprofessional
Hetero/Homosexual
Cisgender/Transgender
Rational/Irrational
Good credit/bad credit
Intelligent/Unintelligent
Down-for-the-cause/sell-out
Member of the faith/heathen
Signifiers
Signifiers
+
-
lighter skin color
standard English*
body type
clothing
expressed values
individualistic
rationality
wealth
higher education religious affiliation
repression
Racially Coded Colonization
darker skin color
non-standard English*
body type
clothing
expressed values
collectivist/communal
irrationality
poverty
lack of education religious affiliation
anger
sensuous
analytic/logical/theoretical
creative in the
conceptual arts
practical
creative in the practical arts
PAN OPTIC GAZE
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
PAN OPTIC GAZE
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Counter Hegemony
-
+
lighter skin color
standard English*
body type
clothing
expressed values
individualistic/selfish
analytic/logical/theoretical
creative in the conceptual arts
darker skin color
non-standard English*
body type
clothing
expressed values
collectivist/communal
practical
creative in the practical arts
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
PAN OPTIC GAZE
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Notice that the primary function of the binary is to exert control on those identifying with the positive side of the binary. This is how Foucault's notion of power differs from his predecessors.
For the discourse to function their must be some who are designated in the negative side, but the majority of the population will feel they have some access to the power up category.
For the discourse to serve its disciplinary function, the signifiers marking someone on the positive side must be difficult or impossible to completely obtain.
Gots and Needs
Irma Fisher
Sean Koble
Yue Shen
Krystal Sundstrom-Herbert
Brandy Todd
Jerry Rosiek
Question:
When do Standards of Knowledge Serve to Advance Human Well-being and When do They Serve as an Instrument of Oppression? Try to come up with concrete examples.

What Would the Latter Condition Mean for the Practice of Research?
For us as Scholars?
Discussion
Truth About The Truth
Troubling Clarity
La Conciencia de la Mestiza
Themes
Geneaology
Full transcript