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19th Century Europe: Summing Up

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on 10 June 2015

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Transcript of 19th Century Europe: Summing Up

19th Century Europe: the Big Picture
Rise of Nation-States
Decline of Empires: Austria
Weakened by the 1848 Revolution
The Age of Imperialism: 1850-1914
Industrilization needs resources and markets;
Rebalance of Power in late 1800s
Bismark's Foreign Policy
Conclusion: A Century of Progress and Turmoil
Enlightenment Ideas spreads...
Decline of Empires: Russia
Severely defeated in the Crimean War, Russia began its half-way modernization reform (e.g. abolish serfdom);
The Rebalance Fails in 1914
Bismarck was forced to retire in 1892 and the succeeding Wilhelm was hostile to Russia, France and Britain;
19th Century Europe: Summing Up
Decline of the Empires
Break of Balance
Germany
Russia
Austria
Imperialism
Defeated by France and Piedmont in 1859
Defeated by Prussia in 1866
Lost Russia's support After the Crimean War in 1853
Split into Austro-Hungarian Empire
Collapse after WWI
Nationalist
Movements
Russia implemented "Russification" policy to assimilate different ethnics, which instead stirred up the nationalist feelings;
Defeated again in the Russo-Japanese War, Russia abandoned its Far-East expansion plan;
The Empire could not withstand the severe loss during the World War I and collapsed in 1917;
Germany
France
Austria-Hungary
Italy
UK
Russia
The chain effect from the Alliances Germany and France made led to the collapse of the rebalance and World War I;
Competetion among European power;
Belief in European Superiority;
European technology advancement;
Industrialization deepens and continues...
Struggles between/inside nations explode...
Individualism and various ideas grow...
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