By Ashley G, Steve L, Michaela H, and Justine W Problem Solving Types of Problems Ways to Problem Solve Barriers to Effective Problem Solving Using Algorithms and Heuristic #2 Problem solving There are four different types of barriers to

problem solving. They are focusing on irrelevant information, functional fixedness, mental set, and the imposition of unnecessary constraints. Irrelevant Information Functional Fixedness Functional Fixedness is the tendency to view an object only in its most common use Mental Set Unnecessary Constraints Problem Space - the possible ways to get to a solution in a problem. Trial and Error Algorithm A mental set exists when people keep using problem solving strategies that have had success in the past Heuristic refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable Working Backward #1 #3 # 4 When you can distinguish an analogy between two problems, you may be able to use the solution from the first problem to solve the current problem. Analogy Ex. I made 25 chocolate chip cookies. I ate all but 12 of them after taking them out of the oven and letting them cool, so I wouldn't burn myself. In the end, how many cookies were left that I didn't eat? Ex. Leslie is running a practice 5K with Jordan. Leslie starts and Jordan waits 5 minutes before starting since she's faster. The course is a 5K which is about 3.1 miles. Who will be closer to the finish line when Jordan catches up to Leslie? The answer to the first example is 12 cookies. And the answer to the second example is they will be the same distance to the finish line. Irrelevant Information Changing representation of the Problem Simple analogies -Verbally

-Mathematically

-Spatially -List

-Table

-Equation

-Graph

-Tree diagram

-Flowchart Ex. Solution Specifically difficult math problem Please

Excuse

My

Dear

Aunt

Sally the next few are "rules of thumb" *The three basic types of problems are that of inducing structure, arrangement, and transformation. Problems of Inducing Structure This requires one to discover the relationship between numbers, symbols, or ideas. ex. What words complete the series?

red, _____, yellow, green, _____, purple Problems of Arrangement This requires the arranging of parts in a problem in a way that satisfies certain requirements. Only a few solutions are usually possible. ex. Solving a jigsaw puzzle Problems of Transformation This requires a sequence of transformations to be carried out to achieve a goal. Even when the outcome is known, it is not always easily attained. ex. going through a maze Irrelevant information is focusing on all the information before identifying anything as relevant Occurs when restrictions on a solution are inferred by the solver and restricts the possible solutions

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# Problem Solving: In Search of Solutions

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