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Astronomy, Gravitation, and Our Understanding of the Universe

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Emily Banks

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of Astronomy, Gravitation, and Our Understanding of the Universe

He supported a geocentric model of the universe.
In fact, the geocentric model is also known as the Ptolemaic system. By Emily Banks and
Jian Zabalerio Astronomy, Gravitation
Our Understanding of the Universe Aristotle Ptolemy: Born 90 AD
Died 168 AD Tycho Brahe Copernicus Galileo was actually the first one to use a telescope for astronomy purposes in 1609. When Galileo heard about the new telescope, he took it upon himself to create his own version of it. This is remarkable because he never actually saw the telescope. Aristotle was born in the year 384 B.C.E and died in 322 B.C.E. He was a researcher and writer, a prodigy of his time. His lifetime was devoted to research and numerous studies, many of which were based off of a range of disciplines, philosophy of mind, metaphysics, and logic. Those topics were further studied through political theory, aesthetics, rhetoric, and empirical biology. Here is the story of a young genius. Aristotle began his studies at a young age. He was initially trained in medicine, and then moved to Athens to study with the genius Greek philosopher, Plato. Aristotle opposed some of his teachings, and later revised them. He is said to have written approximately 130 treatises in his time, of which only 30 have survived the years. These writings were based off his philosophical beliefs, and the idea that there are five elements that compose our universe, Water, Air, Earth, Fire, and Aether. Albert Einstein
Geocentrism is the idea that the earth
is the focal point of the universe. It was
created to show how the planets, the Sun
and the stars orbit around the Earth. However, the geocentric model has existed even before Ptolemy was born. In fact, Plato and Aristotle were writing about it as early as the 4th century B.C. Therefore, his predecessors in the aspect of geocentrism was Aristotle and Plato Invented the telescope
Born: February 15, 1564
Died: January 8, 1642 Galileo Although Hans Lipperhey, a German
spectacle maker, is usually receives recognition
as the inventor of the telescope, The difference between Galileo's telescope and Lipperhey’s is that the Lipperhey's telescope had 3 power magnification, whereas Galileo designed a series of lenses that in combination allowed him to magnify objects by 8, 20 and later on 30 times. Kepler
Born December 27, 1571
Died November 15, 1630
Created the three laws of planetary motion Kepler had access to Brahe's incomparable collection of astronomical observations and used it to help him. Kepler’s laws explain how the plants move around the sun. These laws were created between 1609 to 1619 and are commonly stated as such: 1. The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The Law of Ellipses) 3. The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies) Sir Isaac Newton named the greatest scientist of the era, created the law of universal gravitation.
Born on December 25, 1642
Died March 20, 1727. Although no one knows for sure what inspired Newton to explain the laws of gravitation and laws of motion that we know today, the most popular story out there is the story about Newton sitting under an apple tree. He was simply sitting under when an apple fell on his head and boom! Just like that he was inspired. What causes the seasons on Earth? The seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis away or toward the sun as it travels through its year-long path around the sun. When the Earth's tilt is towards the sun then it is summer, but when they Earth's tilt is away it is winter. It is important to note that Earth is actually closest to the sun during the winter not summer. Equinoxes happen when the axis of rotation of the Earth is precisely parallel to the direction of motion of the earth around the sun. This instance occurs only twice a year and are called the spring and autumn equinoxes. On this day, the day length is exactly the same (12 hours) at all points on the earth’s surface on these days. Equinoxes The Autumn Equinox is the first day of fall and happens when the sun passes the equator going from the northern to the southern hemisphere.
The Spring Equinox is the first day of spring season and happens when the sun passes the equator going from the southern to the northern hemisphere. Copernicus shared his studies in
his first book, called Commentariolus, and later established a second book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, both of which were banned by the Roman Catholic Church. All of his studies and works were considered heretical because they opposed the teachings of the church.
Copernicus died in May of 1520. Nicholas Copernicus was born on
February 19, 1473. In 1508 he created a celestial model of the universe, and
designed his own heliocentric planetary
system. Copernicus also theorized that the sun rest
in the center of the universe, and the earth,
which spun daily on its axis, revolved annually
around the sun. This is known as the Copernican
Theory, or Copernican Heliocentrism.
(Helio meaning sun, centrism meaning center) Born December 14, 1546, Tycho Brahe
made the most accurate astronomical
observations prior to the invention
of the telescope. It all began when Tycho noticed that the Copernican Tables had a slight miscalculation in predicting the overlap of Jupiter and Saturn As a result, Brahe studied the positions of
777 stars, developed a range of instruments including the Tyconian Quadrant, and provided a basis for the works of Kepler His other works include the Astonomiae
Instaruatae Mechanica, which illustrated
all of his instruments and observations, and
the Astronomiae Instaruatae Progymnasmata
which established his theories of solar and lunar motion, an analysis of the supernova of 1572, and his catalogue of the stars Brahe died of uraemia in 1601 A genius was born on March 14, 1879. Albert
Einstein developed "special" and "general" theories
of relativity, which he regarded as his masterpiece, and launched a new science of cosmology in the 1920's. Cosmology The science of the origin and development of the
universe Einstein fled Germany in the midst
of World War Two. Due to his influential
power while being a Jewish citizen, he was
made an assassination target by the Nazis. So Einstein left Germany
for America, where he died
in 1955 at Princeton, NJ. Einstein also created the law of mass-energy equivalance which stated that mass of an object was a measure of is energy. E=MC^2 Plato Aristotle later tought Alexander the Great. He believed that the Earth was the center
of the universe. Einstein also theorized that gravity warps space time. Solstices What is a solstice? A solstice is when the sun is at its greatest distance
from the earth. Sol means sun, sisterce means to stand still The winter solstice gives us the shortest days of the year, usually near December 21st, and it occurs when the sun hits its southern most lattitude, resulting in less sunlight and shorter days. The summer solstice occurs when the sun reaches its northern most lattitude resulting in more sunlight and longer days. This usually occurs near June 21st, and gives us the longest days of the year. "Yule" "Litha" Heliocentrism is the theory that the sun is the center of the universe - helio meaning sun, and centrism meaning center. This theory, which has been proven to be accurate, was established in 1543 by Nicholas Copernicus. Bibliography
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