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Diabetes

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by

Katrina Lau

on 1 May 2015

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Transcript of Diabetes

Diabolical Diabetes
Type 2
Type 2 diabetes is where the insulin receptors have become unresponsive to insulin binding and the pancreas is not able to produce as much insulin as normal.
In both types, the insulin pathway is not working, and the body is unable to tell cells that they need to uptake glucose.
Diabetes
Diabetes is a disease caused by too much sugar, or glucose, in the blood. There are 2 main types:
Symptoms
Type 1
Type 1 is less common than type 2, and usually is diagnosed in childhood.
Pancreas
The pancreas is an organ found under the stomach. It helps in digestion by releasing hormones to tell other cells what to do with incoming food. Insulin is one of the hormones released into the blood stream.
Insulin
Insulin moves to the muscle, fat, and liver cells. Insulin acts like a key to open the glucose gateways on the cell membranes. Once the gateways are open, glucose enters into the cell.
Glucose
Once glucose is brought into the cell, it can be:

1. Broken down and used as energy for the cell.
2. Converted into another form and stored for energy.

The end result: There is less glucose in the blood, so blood sugar levels are lowered.
Normal Digestion
When we eat, the digestive system breaks food down and absorbs the small pieces into the blood stream. One common type of sugar we use for energy is glucose.
Type 1
Type 1 diabetes is where the pancreas produces little to no insulin. It is caused by the immune cells of the body attacking the insulin producing cells of the pancreas.
Symptoms and signs may include:

Drinking more water
Frequent urination
Increased appetite
Weight loss
Fatigue and tiredness
Blurred vision
More prone to infections (type 2)
Slow to heal (type 2)
Causes
Treatment
These occur because:

1) The body's cells cannot get glucose, so they starve.

2) Because of the high blood sugar, more fluid is pulled from the tissues. The long term organ damage that results include the heart, eyes, nerves, and kidneys (type 2).
Type 2
Type 2 affects over 90% of Americans who have diabetes. Those who are highest at risk for developing it are usually over 45, overweight, and have family members with diabetes.
Type 2 long term effects
The long term damage of type 2 diabetes may lead to:
Heart attack and stroke
Kidney failure
Blindness or cataracts
Loss of hearing
Alzheimer's disease
A cataract is a clouding of the eye lens.
The exact cause for type 1 diabetes is also unknown, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It cannot be prevented by eating habits.
Type 1
Type 2
The exact cause for why diabetes occurs is unknown, but eating habits appear to play an important role.
Factors that contribute to type 2 diabetes:


Overweight
Low Physical activity
Genetics
Age
High blood pressure
Many factors contribute to developing diabetes. In general, too much fatty tissue may lead to diabetes over time, but obesity is not the sole cause of diabetes.
Diabetes can be treated by monitoring blood sugar to keep levels in a good range.
A normal blood sugar level is generally between 70 mg/dL-240 mg/dL.
Insulin Injections
Insulin must be injected into the blood stream. It cannot be taken orally because the stomach's digestion would stop insulin from working.
Insulin is a required treatment for type 1, and can help control type 2.
Oral medication
Usually for type 2 diabetes, oral medicine can help control blood sugar levels by:

Causing the pancreas to make more insulin.
Blocking the digestive system from breaking food down into sugar.
Inhibit the liver from releasing stored sugar.
Lifestyle
Managing and monitoring diabetes is a lifestyle alone, but the severity of the disease can be lessened by eating foods with lower fat content and by getting regular physical activity. Even 30 minutes of brisk walking most days of the week can help maintain blood sugar.
Full transcript