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Four Stroke Engine Cycle

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by

Richard Mills

on 6 June 2014

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Transcript of Four Stroke Engine Cycle

Four Stroke Reciprocating Diesel Engine Cycle
Ignition
C/I: Compression ignition
Filtration
Adequate filtration to suit application

1) Increased volume of air able to enter the cylinder
Compression
Position of valves and direction of piston travel during compression
Forced Induction
Induction
The steps of the four stroke cycle
1) Induction
2) Compression
3) Ignition
4) Exhaust

Types of induction systems

N/A: Naturally Aspirated,

This type of system uses the downward draw of the piston to fill the cylinder with clean air.

Advantages of N/A:

No additional moving parts which may require service intervention, or cause failure of other components of the engine.
Forced induction
Advantages of turbo charged induction:
1) Works in balance with the engine
2) Lower compression required in the cylinder

3) Increased volume of air able to enter the cylinder
Disadvantages of N/A:

Lower power due to restricted air to
fuel ratio.

Naturally Aspirated

Forced Induction
Position of valves and direction of piston travel during induction
Turbo Charger
Super Charger
Disadvantages of turbo charged induction:
1) Additional moving parts in the engine intake
2) Compression of the air causes a temperature rise
Advantages of supercharged induction
2) Lower compression ratio
required in the cylinder

Disadvantages of supercharged
induction
1) Additional moving parts in the
engine intake
2) Requires engine horse power to
drive the rotors
3) Does not suffer from boost lag
3) Can suffer from boost lag
3) Compression of the air causes a temperature rise
N/A: Naturally Aspirated
Precleaner:
Primary Filter:
Secondary Filter:
Filter types:


Dust ejection:
Radial
Panel
Cone
Achieving a good seal for compression
1) Piston compression ring, type, grove size, and wear
2) Good seat on cyl head valves, strong valve springs
3) Correct liner protrusion
4) Head gasket seal and strength
5) Liner wear and lubrication
6) Engine timing
Position of valves and direction
of piston travel during Ignition
To achieve maximum efficiency
1) Engine timing must be correct
2) No leakage of pressure
3) Correct timing of fuel injection
4) Atomisation of the fuel, and correct spray pattern
5) Correct air to fuel ratio
6) Evacuation of cylinder from previous cycle
Exhaust
Types of fuel system
1) Inline fuel pump
2) Rotary fuel pump
3) Common rail
4) M.E.U.I Mechanical electronic unit injection
5) H.E.U.I Hydraulic electronic unit injection
M.E.U.I Injector
Mechanically actuated by an additional rocker arm
H.E.U.I Injector
Hydraulic actuated injector
Common rail injector
Injects high pressure fuel delivered from seporate pump

Electronicly controlled:

1) Timing
2) Volume of fuel
Pencil Injector
Electronically controlled:

1) Timing
2) Volume of fuel
Electronically controlled:

1) Volume of fuel
Injects a pre determined volume, and timing of fuel
Ignition is caused by the heat generated during compression
Remember each system will fault differently!
Presented by: Rich Mills
Finning, Uk, Chesterfield Workshop Controller.
Questions
Position of valves and direction of piston travel during exhaust
To achieve maximum effeciency during exhaust
1) Vacate cylinder of gas
2) Engine timing is correct
3) Smooth flow/ without excessive restriction
Components of the exhaust system
Manifold
C.E.M Unit
Muffler
N.R.S Cooler
Engine components
Cylinder head, inlet and exhaust valves
Piston, Conrod, piston rings
Cylinder liner
Crankshaft
Injector
Cam shaft
Cylinder block
Rocker assembley
Full transcript