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on 28 November 2014

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Transcript of ORIGINAL

Physical Activity and Health
Patrik Wennberg, MD. PhD.
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine
Umeå University
Sedentary behaviour and cognition
Will breaking up prolonged sitting make me smarter?

The CEREBRA study

Cognitive Effects from
REpeated BReAks
IDLE breaks study
Activity breaks lower postprandial glucose and insulin levels
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Uninterrupted sitting increased fibrinogen and reduced plasma volume
75 differentially-expressed genes
-only limited research has been conducted on the relationship between sedentary behaviours and cognitive outcomes
Cognitive effects?
Sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic risk
Sedentary behaviour
Vigorous intensity physical activity
Moderate intensity physical activity
Resistance training
The CEREBRA study
Primary aim: To investigate the acute effects of a single bout of prolonged sitting on executive function and long-term memory with and without intermittent bouts of light-intensity physical activity in older (45-75 years) overweight adults.

Secondary aim: To examine the corresponding acute effect on potential mediating pathways (metabolic, neurotrophic, inflammatory markers and markers of sympathetic activation).
The CEREBRA study
Executive function tasks
Response time
Moderate intensity exercise
>20 min exercise
After exercise
Aerobic exercise
Higher effects sizes for:
Experimental studies
Young, R.J. The effect of regular exercise on cognitive functioning
and personality. Br. J. Sports Med. 1979
Improved executive function from a 10 week exercise program
Longer-term exercise interventions improve cognition
Experimental studies
Cognitive reserve

Geda et al. Physical exercise, aging, and mild cognitive impairment: a population-based study. Arch. Neurol. 2010

Singh-Manoux et al. Effects of physical activity on cognitive functioning in middle age: evidence from the Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study. Am. J. Public Health 2005
Observational studies
Prefrontal cortex
Miyake A. et al. "The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex 'frontal lobe' tasks: A latent variable analysis". Cognitive Psychology 1999
Executive function
Hillman et al. 2006 Physical activity and cognitive function in a cross-section of younger and older community dwelling individuals. Health Psychol. 2006.
Observational studies
Cross-sectional studies:

Adults who are generally more physically active are more likely than adults who are generally inactive to have better performance on various cognitive tasks
Observational studies
Physical activity and cognition
Prospective studies:
Physical activity in early and middle adulthood can preserve cognition and reduce the risk of dementia in later life
How Does It Happen?
A single bout of exercise can improve specific aspects of cognition
McMorris T. et al. Differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition: a meta-analytical investigation. Brain Cogn, 2012

Chang, Y.K. et al. The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res, 2012
Similar to the IDLE breaks study
19 participants
Randomized crossover trial:
Uninterrupted sitting vs.
Sitting + light-intensity activity breaks (3 min every 30 minutes)

Cognitive assessments
Blood collections

Stroop test
David Dunstan
Gavin Lambert
Robyn Larsen
Carl-Johan Olsson
Hayley Moon
Michael Wheeler
Bethany Howard
Paddy Dempsey
Exercise increases hippocampus size and improves memory
Ericksen et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011
TV viewing several shows a day
TV viewing one show per day or less
"These findings suggest that reduced TV viewing in adolescence, in addition to and independently of regular leisure-time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood, may contribute to cardiometabolic health later in life"
Time spent doing moderate- vigorous PA
Sedentary (sitting) time
Time spent doing light PA (standing/walking)
Michael Wheeler, B.Sc Sports Science and Health (Undergraduate)
School of Health and Human Performance,
Dublin City University
Physical Activity
Drakensberg Cave Paintings, South Africa
Hunting Implements found here date between 40,000-100,000 years old.
"That which we call thinking is the evolutionary internalization of movement"
Llina´s R. 2001. I of the vortex: from neurons to self. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 302 p.
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a likely candidate mediator linking physical activity cognition and metabolism.
Mattson MP, Maudsley S, Martin B. 2004. BDNF and 5-HT: a dynamic duo in age-related neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative
disorders. Trends Neuroscience (27)pp:589–594
BDNF is a member of the neurotrophic factor family, which plays a key role in regulating survival, growth and maintenance
of neurons.
Vaynman, S.Ying, Z. & Gomez-Pinilla, F. 2004. Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20(10), pp. 2580-90.
Rojas Vega, S.Struder, H. K.Vera Wahrmann, B.Schmidt, A.Bloch, W. & Hollmann, W. 2006. Acute BDNF and cortisol response to low intensity exercise and following ramp incremental exercise to exhaustion in humans. Brain Res, 1121(1), pp.59-65.
Weight of mutant females at 30 weeks was 64.6 g (±3.8) compared with 25.8 g (±1.5) for the controls (P = 0.0004)
Skerries Harbour
Ferris, L. T.Williams, J. S. & Shen, C. L. 2007. The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(4), 728-34.
Ferris, L. T.Williams, J. S. & Shen, C. L. 2007. The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(4), 728-34.
Cognitive Function via the stroop test was assessed pre and post the two exercise conditions.
On the theory of relativity:

”I thought of that
while riding my bicycle”
Albert Einstein riding his bicycle in Santa Barbara 1933
Week 6
Week 30
Food Intake
120 participants,
mean age 66 years
Diabetes Care Paper
Physical Activity and Cognition
The CEREBRA study
Body-Brain Mechanisms

Candidate Mechanisms
Sympathetic Markers
Cerebrovascular flow
Inflammatory markers
Physical Activity
Rios, M.Fan, G.Fekete, C.Kelly, J.Bates, B.Kuehn, R.Lechan, R. M. & Jaenisch, R. 2001. Conditional deletion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the postnatal brain leads to obesity and hyperactivity. Mol Endocrinol, 15(10), 1748-57.
Krabbe, K. S.Nielsen, A. R.Krogh-Madsen, R.Plomgaard, P.Rasmussen, P.Erikstrup, C.Fischer, C. P.Lindegaard, B.Petersen, A. M.Taudorf, S.Secher, N. H.Pilegaard, H.Bruunsgaard, H. & Pedersen, B. K. 2007. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 50(2), 431-8.
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