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Infrastructure of ancient Greece

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Robert Matero

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of Infrastructure of ancient Greece

The quickest, most efficient and most used form of transportation ("airplanes of transportation").

The sailors prayed to the sea god Poseidon, for a safe journey before their trip.

Understanding navigation was very important to a sailor's survival.

Steering, sails, and anchors all were very important to a ship's safe arrival.

The sails depended on the strength of the mast. If the mast wasn't strong then adjustments couldn't be made. The sail was raised and lowered according to the wind; when the wind was light sail was fully extended. When the wind became gusty and strong sail would be lowered.
Infrastructure of Ancient Greece
Architecture in Ancient Greece
- Architecture produced by Hellenic people (Greek-speaking people)
- Flourished from 900 B.C. to about 100 A.D. (oldest remaining structures from about 600 B.C.)
- Greek architecture was based on a highly structured system of proportions (symmetry, harmony, and the unity of parts was extremely important)
- The Greeks were the first to study the golden ratio because they wanted to create buildings that were as appealing to the eye as possible
- The Greek architecture is best known for its temples, amphitheaters, town council buildings, town squares and stadiums
- The styles that the ancient Greeks used in their architecture can still be found in today's world (especially in administrative and religious buildings)
Public buildings
Ships in ancient Greece
Cargo ship
The Trireme warship was a form of transportation that was key to the success of many wars in Ancient Greek.

Second generation ship that came from the Bireme Warship ("upgraded version").

Small and not built for long ocean journeys because it was super low, but the ship was extremely fast; it was able to go roughly 9 knots (17 km/h)
Typical house plans 200 B.C
Every Greek town had an "Open-air theater" these were used for meetings and performances.
Towns of considerable size had their own gymnasium which was used for men to train themselves for public games such as the Olympics
Some towns had temples which were devoted for the gods
Towns were constructed with a public fountain from 500 B.C onwards
In some towns there were stadiums, which were used for chariot racing or sports.
In the name Bireme "bi" stands for two and "reme" stands for oars.

A greek ship that has two sets of oars on each of it sides (the number of oars per ship ranged between 30-50, each measuring up to 4-6 meter in length).

Biremes were basically war ships with broad bottoms and shallow draft.
It was use for both naval wars and transportation purposes.

The ship was used extensively by the Greeks during the famous Trojan War.
Three Architectural Systems (called orders)
The Doric order (e.g. Parthenon) was sturdy and plain. It is the oldest of the three (was used from the beginning of the 7th century B.C. onwards). It was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.
One of the most common ships in ancient Greece.

Used to transport imports and exports.

These ships used sails and sometimes oars and rowers.

Average speed of 5 knots.

It was made of wood and weighted about 150 tons (around 400 B.C.)
A depiction of what the Open-air theaters looked like
Theater of Dionysus,
Theater of Dionysus, Modern day
"Ancient Greek Boating and Shipping." Ancient Greek Boating and Shipping. Web. 02 Nov. 2013. http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/docs/1/kenny.html#cargo
"Ancient War Ship Types - Biremes and Triremes - Human Powered Ships of the Phoenicians and Romans." Brighthub Engineering. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2013. http://www.brighthubengineering.com/marine-history/72868-types-of-ancient-war-ships-biremes-and-triremes/
"Facts and Details." ANCIENT GREEK INFRASTRUCTURE, TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS. Web. 02 Nov. 2013. http://factsanddetails.com/world.php?itemid=2000
"Ancient Greek Ways of Transportation." The Classroom. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2013. http://classroom.synonym.com/ancient-greek-ways-transportation-9804.html
"Acropolis." Ancient Greece. Web. 31 Oct. 2013. http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Art/
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"Greek Architecture." Ancient Greece Architecture. Web. 31 Oct. 2013.http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture.html
"Greek Architecture." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Web. 31 Oct. 2013.http://www.ancient.eu.com/Greek_Architecture/
"Greek Architecture: Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian?" - For Dummies. Web. 31 Oct. 2013.http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/greek-architecture-doric-ionic-or-corinthian.html
"Greek Architecture." Greek Architecture. Web. 31 Oct. 2013.http://www.stevehammer.net/lessons/New%20lessons/computer_lessons2/greece/Greek%20Architecture.htm
"Layout of Greek Temples: Ancient Greek Religion & Architecture." Layout of Greek Temples: Ancient Greek Religion & Architecture. Web. 03 Nov. 2013.
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"Greek Architecture" http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Architecture_of_ancient_Greece.html
The buildings were mainly made out of stone because that was available (limestone was readily available almost throughout the Hellenic empire and it was easily worked.)
There was also an abundance of fine marble and it was a major contributing factor to precision of detail.
Also, potter's clay that could be used for roof tiles and architectural decoration was found
Carts And Chariots
Carts had both spoked wheels and solid wheels.

The Greeks used heavy carts pulled by donkeys, oxen or mules to transport for example building materials.

The carts had heavy carrying capacity

When the Greeks carried a lot of stuff with them, they used carts.

The difference between a cart and a chariot is subtle. Both are two wheeled conveyances. The chariot was light and built for speed. The cart was heavy and strong.
Walking And Roads
Getting from point A to point B over land was not an easy task for the ancient Greeks. Greece is a land of mountainous, rugged landscapes that didn't make for smooth travel in ancient times.
Roads in ancient Greece were bumpy and unpaved, little paths to the highways.
Roads were used mostly during the winter, but also to export goods to places not surrounded by water.
The most common form of transportation for the average ancient Greek citizen, whether rich or poor, was his or her feet.
Walking was a practical way of traveling through mountainous landscapes.
Slavery was prevalent in ancient Greek life while wealthy ancient Greeks indeed walked a lot, slaves could accompany them and carry their belongings and purchases, thus serving as transportation.
People who traveled by land did not travel far.
One of the first forms of transportation, other than walking was the chariot.

To describe it, it was a carriage that lied on a long axle (beam), connected to two wheels. The wheels were made out of wood and had four to eight iron or bronze spokes.

The chariot was originated in Mesopotamia around 3,000 B.C and used by the Sumerians. Greek mythology says, the chariot was invented by a man named Erichthonius of Athens to save himself from walking and have horses pull him instead.
The Ionic Order
The Ionic order (e.g. The Temple of Athene Nike) was thinner and more elegant. It was developed during the 6th century B.C. in the Ionic islands. Its capital is decorated with a scroll. This style could be found from eastern Greece and the islands.
The Doric Order
The Corinthian Order
The Corinthian order was more commonly found on Roman temples. It is supposed that it was developed during the 5th century B.C. in the city of Corinth. The capital is the most decorated out of the three and often features acanthus leaves.
Temples were meant to serve as a home for the individual god or goddess
the community
In the temple the god or goddess was represented by a cult statue (seated or standing statue)
Domestic buildings
Ancient Greek houses changed throughout their history. At first the early designs of Greek houses usually contained of two rooms and an open porch. They were made out of clay bricks or with a wooden framework filled with straw covered by clay or plaster. They had a stone base and a roof of straw. Richer people would often have stone roofs and mosaic floors.

Houses developed and more rooms were added and even upper floors.
They had living rooms, proper entrances, a kitchen and bedrooms. Houses also had a "pasta" which is an open wide pathway in the house connecting to all the rooms and to the courtyard of the house.

All temples were oriented east-west
-> priest could face east when performing rituals e.g. offering sacrifices
Religious rites were held outside the temple
Most important feature in the temple
Cult statue was kept and other sacred items
Situated infront of the naos , (between walls)
Situated in the back of the temple
Opisthodmus wasn't seen in the first Greek temples
-> added later on
No access to the naos
Types of temples:
Completely surrounded by columns
Columns arranged in two rows
Only a single colonnade that was placed on the facade
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