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Imperialism And Nationalism
Transcript of Imperialism And Nationalism
Chapters: 19 & 21
What Is Imperialism?
Imperialism is the extension of a nations power over other lands. This began in the 1880's. It was powered by Economic, exploratory, ethnocentric, political, and religious reasons. Another key factor in imperialism was Social Darwinism.
Economic: cheap labor, access to or control of markets to buy/sell products.
Exploratory: They wanted to expand control over more countries.
Ethnocentric: Their cultural values/beliefs were superior to that of others.
Political: Strategic territory to ensure success foe Navies and Armies.
Religious: They wanted to purify the people that they
What Are The 5 Motives
thought were bad/uncivilized.
Social Darwinism is the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals.
So this was basicaly like the theory of "survival of the fittest".
The countries that imperialised other countries were in a race to take over more land. countries they took over they led either by direct rule or indirect rule. Often times countries would be annexed or taken over. And many indigenous people suffered.
Direct Rule: Local elites were removed from power and replaced with a new set of officals brought from the mother country.
Indirect Rule: Local rulers were allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status.
Annexed: This term is used to describe countries that have been taken over by another.
Indigenous: People who are native to land or region.
Viceroy: a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch
Sepoys: an Indian soldier hired to protect the company's interests in the region (hired by British East India Company)
Mestizo: a person of mixed European and native American Indian descent
Creole: a person of European descent born in the New World and living there permanently
A lot of people died and it caused the leaders going mad with power. When a country would annex a country they would make slaves out of the indiginous. But it helped people expand into new territory and get to more goods.
Name the 5 motives:
What is Social Darwinism?
What is imperialism and when did it happen?
When countries went in and tool over their power it is called ________.
What is Nationalism?
The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.
The idea of nationalism began Europe, during the early 1800s, some time of the French Revolution. The Industrial Revolution played a part in the starting of nationalism.
The British East India Company had its own solders and forts. They ruled directly through a British known as a viceroy. It also hired Indian soldiers known as Sepoy's to protect the company's interest in the region. They eventually led revolt called the Great Rebellion or the Sepoy Mutiny.
During the time of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte had dominated French and European land. Even though he brought the ending of the tradgic time, Napoleon's power came to a close because of nationalism. Napoleon begun spreading ideas of the French Revolution, indirectly bringing French nationalism into play.
Napoleon was indeed using nationalism as a weapon, but he didn't know it would backfire. No sooner, other countries in Europe came across nationalism. They use the idea as a tool.
Inspired by the idea, Russia refused to remain in the Continental System with Napoleon. Napoleon declared an invasion, failing miserably. When Napoleon battled in Waterloo, he was defeated by the combined powers of Prussia and Britain.
The Unification of Germany and Italy:
The revolutions of 1848 had failed but by 1871 Germany and Italy would be unified. these changes were brought fourth by the Crimean War.
In 1850 Austria was still the dominating power of the Italian Peninsula. People began looking for leadership in Piedmont. Giuseppe Garibaldi was a dedicated Italian patriot. He raised an army of a thousand volunteers called the Red Shirts by the color of their uniforms.
On March 17, 1861 a new kingdom of Italy was proclaimed under King Victor Emmanuel II. And in 1870 during the Franco-Persian War, French troops were pulled from Rome. Their withdrawal made it so that the Italian army could annex Rome on September 20, 1870.
The Frankfurt Assembly failed to achieve German Unification in 1848 and 49. The Germans looked to Prussia for a leader in this cause of German unification.
The Prussian king had control over both he government and the army. Prussia was known for its militarism. Count Otto von Bismark had been appointed by King William I when Prussian legislature refused to levy new taxes.
From 1862 to 1866 Bismark governed Prussia without election. He created turmoil between the Austrians. this led to a war on June 14 1866. They were defeated on July 3rd. Prussia dominated northern Germany.
William I of Prussia was made kaiser/emperor of Second German Empire. And therefore Germany had been unified.
Militarism: Reliance on military strength.
Kaiser: Title for emperors of the Second German Empire.
Plebiscite: Popular vote.
Emancipation: he act of setting free.
Abolitionism: Movement to end slavery.
Imperialism: the extension of a nation's power over other lands
Protectorate: a political unit that depends on another government for its protection
Liberalism: a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be free as possible from the government restraint and that civil liberties should be protected