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American Imperialism & World War I

This presentation highlights the people and events that led to the start of the Great War

Maritza Morris

on 23 February 2018

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Transcript of American Imperialism & World War I

Causes of World War I
Large Overseas Empire
Powerful Navy
Small Army
Small Overseas Empire
large Army
Medium Overseas Empire
Large Army
Little to no Empire
Lack of Industry
Large Army
Large Population
European Leaders
King George V
Great Britain
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Czar Nicholas II
All Three Were Cousins!
Deep sense of pride and loyalty to one's nation
"Super" Patriotism- Jingoism
Believe their Nation & people are the best
The greater the military the greater the nation
Industrial Revolution = powerful weapons-
*Arms race in Europe
Industrialized nations want colonies
Competition for resources and wealth
Large empires = wealth and power
*Intensifies rivalries between nations
Formed to avoid war
Maintain a balance of power
Old Empire
Many Ethnic Groups Lead to Conflict
Natural Ally With Germany
Emperor Franz Joseph
Central Powers:
Allies (Triple Entente):
Great Britain,
France, Serbia,
Russia, U.S.A.

Secret Diplomacy (Alliances)
Large artillery
Machine gun
Battle ships
Nations promised to support one another in a conflict
Great Britain
protect their empire
made nervous by Germany
France is traditional rival
Jealous of Great Britain
Wants a larger Empire
Increases its Navy & Army
Natural allies with Austria-Hungary
Growing fear of Germany
Natural enemy with Russia & Great Britain
trying to catch up with the West
large nation with many problems
people are frustrated with the Czar
taking over lands in the Balkans
natural ally with Germany
trying to regain power in Europe
Empire in decline
wants to be a major power
wants more colonies
wants lands in Austria-Hungary
United States
Remains neutral and isolated from Europe
Plans to trade and profit from any potential war
The Spark
Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia & Herzegovina
angers Serbia
Serbs resent Austrian control
Terrorist group Black Hand

Plan to attack Austria-Hungary
The Assassination
The Black Hand targets Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
Heir to the throne
Visiting Bosnian city of Serajevo
Black Hand will strike during parade
June, 1914
Archduke & Wife Sophie arriving in Serajevo
Attack during the parade fails
Archduke decides to visit hospital to see those injured by the bomb
Driver takes wrong turn
Car stops in front of assassin Gavrillo Princip
Princip fires twice
Kills the Archduke & his wife
Photo of Princip's arrest
The Archduke's Funeral
Austria-Hungary wants revenge
Learns that Serbia supplied weapons to the Black Hand
A-H wants war with Serbia
Russia is ally to Serbia
Germany supports Austria-Hungary
July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Alliances Are Triggered!
Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary
Germany declares war on Russia
France declares war on Germany
Great Britain declares war on Germany
Italy stays out for now
Nations celebrated the declaration of war in 1914
A Two-Front War
Germany in the center of Europe
Surrounded by enemies
Must fight a Two-Front War
Schlieffen Plan
Developed by Germany's General Schlieffen
Hold off Russia in the East
Invade France through Belgium
Capture Paris
France surrenders
Great Britain will make peace
Send army back to Russia to defeat them
Germany wins the war by Christmas
Belgium Is The Key!
Belgium was neutral
Germany asked permission to march through
Belgium says "No"
Germany invades August 1914
Belgians slow German Army
England joins the war
The Bad Guy
Belgium used as propaganda
News stories spread rumors of German atrocities
"Remember Belgium!"
The Plan Fails
Germans are too slow
French Army retreats
British able to land forces
Germans must take Paris!
Germans push British & French back to the Marne River
1st Battle of the Marne
British & French counter-attack at the Marne River
September 5-12, 1914
Stop German attack on Paris
Heavy casualties: 500,000 casualties (80,000 French killed)
Both armies reach stalemate
Stalemate: neither side can advance
Both sides begin to dig trenches
Beginning of trenchwarfare on the Western Front
Trench Warfare
Dig into the ground for protection
Both sides try to outflank one another
Trenches will be dug hundreds of miles across France
Trench Warfare
Trenches spread across France
Inhumane conditions
Trench Diagram
No Man's Land
Area between the enemy trenches
Must cross to reach enemy trench
No cover, open to enemy fire
Mud, artillery shell holes
Life in the Trenches
Soldiers lived in trenches 24/7
Under constant bombardment
Rats, lice
Open latrines
Dead bodies
Over the Top
Soldiers leave trench to charge enemy
German U-Boat
Poison Gas
Air Warfare
The United States & WWI
USA & the War
US remained neutral
Sell war materials to each side
US ships stopped by British Navy
US ships sunk by German subs
US believed they had freedom of the seas
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany used U-Boats (submarines) to sink ships carrying supplies to Great Britain
British need supplies to continue to fight the war
British begin to smuggle war goods on passenger ships
British passenger liner sailing from New York to England
Germans warn travelers that the ship will be sunk if found by a U-Boat
Lusitania was smuggling war materials
May 7, 1915: Lusitania torpedoed and sunk by German U-Boat
1,195 people killed, 123 Americans
Americans outraged
Anti-German attitude strengthens in the US
Lusitania in New York
German Warning to Passengers
Propaganda using the Lusitania
US Does Not Declare War
President Wilson demands German apology
Germany makes Sussex Pledge
Will not sink anymore US ships without warning, ends unrestricted sub warfare
Germany's Dilema
Sussex Pledge
keeps the US out of the war
allows supplies to get to Great Britain
makes it harder for Germany to win the war
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
keeps supplies from getting to Great Britain
will bring the US into the war
Germany will now have to fight another enemy
"Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare against passenger and freight-carrying vessels, the Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the German Empire altogether" - President Wilson
Zimmerman Note
Germany sends coded telegram to Mexico
Proposes an alliance with Mexico
Germany will aid Mexico
Mexico will declare war on the US
British intercept & decode the telegram
Published in US newspapers March 1, 1917
Americans outraged, demand action
United States Declares War!
April 2, 1917 President Wilson asks Congress for a declaration of war against Germany
US will join the Allied Powers
Wilson says the US will fight to "make the world safe for democracy"

During Progressive Era- moving away from Laissez-Faire
Government organizes economy for war time

Council of National Defense agencies (Counsel pres)
War Industries Board, Food Admin, Fuel Admin
Comm. on Public Information (Creel Committee), Uncle Sam

"100% American"
Loyalty issues (Espionage & Sedition Act 1918): Designed to deport spies and deter speaking out vs. U.S.
The trial of Kate Richards O’Hare

The American Home-front
Wilson Addressing Congress
Troubles in Russia
Russia losing the war
People are broke, starving & freezing
Protests and riots over food & fuel
Czar Nicholas II hated by many
March 1917: Czar Nicholas II abdicates his throne
New government continues the war
Lenin & the Bolshevik Revolution
Vladimir Lenin returns to Russia
Leads Bolshevik party
Communist revolution in November 1917
Promises the people: "Bread, peace, land"
Lenin & the Bolsheviks take control of the government
Make peace with Germany
March 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russia drops out of the war
Lenin Speaking
Impact of the Communist Revolution in Russia
Impact on the War
Russia drops out of the war
Surrenders a large area of land to Germany & Austria-Hungary
Allows Germany to send troops to the Western Front
Germany now fighting a 1 front war
Impact on History
Civil War for control of Russia
Czar & his family arrested and murdered July 1918
First Communist nation in the world
Land Surrendered by Russia
Lusitania Sunk!
The Doughboys Arrive
US troops arrive in France
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
General John J. Pershing
US troops welcomed by cheering crowds (Dough boys)
Germany's Last Chance
March 1918: Germany launches a major offensive on the Western Front
“ We must strike at the earliest moment before the Americans can throw strong forces into the scale. We must beat the British.” - Gen. Ludendorff
German troops move fast & drive Allied forces back towards Paris
End of trench warfare & stalemate
War will now move quickly
Germany's Spring Offensive
Attack Halted
German offensive stalls
German troops exhausted and running low on supplies
Allies hold outside of Paris
2nd Battle of the Marne
Allies counter attack and begin driving German troops out of France & back towards Belgium
Western Front 1918 Before German Offensive
End of German Offensive
Western Front When Germany Surrenders
Central Powers Collapse
October 30, 1918: Ottoman Empire sues for peace
November 3, 1918: Austria-Hungary sues for peace
November 7, 1918: German generals meet with Allies to negotiate cease fire
November 9, 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates his throne and flees to Holland
November 10, 1918: New German government is founded
Germans agree to an armistice (cease-fire)
Allied Generals meet with German High Command
Armistice: Cease-Fire
November 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. both sides stop fighting
Celebrations break out around the world
A treaty will have to be written and signed to officially end the war

Soldiers Celebrating
Anti-Serbian Propaganda
Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace:
Fourteen Points & “peace without victory”

Treaty of Versailles
who was and was not at the treaty conference?
German, French, US, & British
(Italians, Austrians take backseat)
Russia- not represented
Ho Chi Minh- French Indochina

Provisions of the treaty, Article 231
"War Guilt Clause"
Demilitarization of Rhineland
League of Nations controversy
"The covenant" Article X- "collective security"
U.S. debate over passage and Wilson’s stroke

Dramatic Population Increase
Results in massive amounts of immigration to U.S.

Nations are increasingly less able to provide food, jobs

More people are poor

Other groups (sub nations) want independence
Germans announce they will sink any ship that crosses their path
DOes not get us into war!!!
Stalemate = Germans announce they will resume unrestricted submarine warfare

No american ships attacked, but announce they will sink if they feel like it
Monumental 180' on Monroe Doctrine
Democracy at Stake for whole world
New Philosophy shapes future American foreign policy

Becoming a World Power
- Explain the major reasons for the growing call in the late 1800's for the United States to develop an empire.
- Describe America's first moves toward an empire.
- Explain the major reasons for the Spanish-American War of 1898.
- Describe the growth of imperialism in the United States during the Progressive era.

Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick” policy (1901-1909)
(aggressive militaristic version of empire building)

Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine (1904)
"The right of the US to intervene militarily," not if you ask us to

Panama Canal (1914)

William Howard Taft (1909-1913)
dollar diplomacy (encourage US business in Latin America) & the “Open Door” policy (commercial access to China)
US fin. interest = influence

Quest for Empire (Latin America/Asia) vs. Isolationism (Europe)
Influencing policies -> Latin America
Isolationism -> Europe

Quest for Empire, cont’d

Why a quest for empire?

America’s Quest for Empire

World War I: Objectives
-Discuss the major reasons for the outbreak of war in 1914.

-Understand American Experiences during WWI.
-Explain the effects of the Treaty of Versailles.
American Foreign Policy pre-1890's:
Isolationism-- Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Competition with Europe: Political & Economic (New markets)
Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis & Manifest Destiny (demands new frontier/natural to explore and conquer)
Nativism: the "white man's burden" (Rudyard Kipling) for his "little brown brothers" (moral obligation to bring Christianity to less privileged people)
Acquisitions: Samoa, Hawai'i, Alaska
Spanish American War

Fears and Benefits of Imperialism
Americans' fear:
Being isolated from land grabbing = loss of world markets and geopolitical power
Benefits of conquests:
Substantial profits
Worldwide network of commercial and military bases
Queen Lili'uokalani
Building up the Navy
Congress authorizes construction of all-steel, steam driven battleships with long-range artillery
Alfred Thayer Mahan
"The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783"
(Contends need for warships to protect merchants and maintain overseas colonies)
1889-1893- Navy grows from 17th to 7th
Fought for humanitarian, geopolitical, and commercial reasons
Spanish influence in decline
American Business Interests
Yellow Journalism (Joseph Pulitzer & William Hearst)
de Lome letter (Spain's US ambassador) & USS Maine (Havana harbor) blows up, kills 266
Declaring War & the Teller Agreement

Fighting on Two Fronts
Americans fought Spain in Cuba & the Philippines
Americans Win!
Spain grants Cuba independence, cedes overseas possessions to the U.S.
Independence for the Philippines? Not so fast.

Rough Riders- mixture of Wall Street businessmen, Ivy League volunteers, western cowboys, and a few Native Americans
Buffalo Soldiers- African American Soldiers
"Cuban Independence" & Platt Amendment (1901)
Price for independence
PR, Guam, Philippines--Insular Case: American territories, not citizens!
Results: US Colonies in Guam, Puerto Rico, & Philippines
Full transcript