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Chapter 16- Abnormal Behavior

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patil derhovagimian

on 23 February 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 16- Abnormal Behavior

Chapter 16- Abnormal Behavior
Causes:
psychoanalytic-internal conflict in the unconscious from childhood
behavioral- responses learned through reinforcement of the wrong behaviors
humanist- poor self-concept placed by society
Causes:
cognitive-from irrational and illogical perceptions/belief systems
evolutionary- when we do not perform our naturally selected functions effectively
biological- neurochemical/hormonal balances, genetic predispositions, structural brain damage
DSM-IV(V being used today as well)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals used
Disorders
DSM-IV & V
classifies psychological disorders by their symptoms
17 categories of mental disorders
400 disorders
figure out individuals disorder and how to treat it
Medical Model
psychopathology- study of the origin and development of the mental/behavioral disorder
etiology- cause and development of the illness
prognosis-probable course of the illness

Anxiety Disorders
feeling of uneasiness, tension, agitation
sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure
worry and distractibility
panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, OCD, PTSD
Panic Disorder
repeated attacks of intense anxiety
chest pain, tight muscles, sweating, choking
last a few minutes to a couple of hours
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
similar to panic disorder
symptoms must occur for at least 6 months
trouble sleeping, tense, difficulty concentrating, irritable
Phobias
intense and irrational fear of something
desire to avoid the situation or object
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
persistent, intrusive, unwanted thoughts that are difficult to get rid of
followed by:
ritualistic behaviors performed repeatedly to reduce the tension of the obsessive thoughts
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD)
result of a trauma experienced by an individual
re experience the trauma through nightmares or flashbacks
Treatments
Generalized Anxiety Disorder- Valium, Xanax
OCD- Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft
Somatoform DX(disorder)
soma=body
when a person experiences a physical problem in absence of physical cause
not faked, psychological problems "take forms" of physical problems
chronic pains, aches, tiredness, causes anxiety and depression
Somatization disorder
recurrent complaints about dizziness, heart palpitations, and nausea with no physical cause
Conversion Disorder
report the existence of severe physical problems(paralysis, blindness, won't be able to move arms/legs but have no biological reason for problems), very dependent on others
Conversion disorder theories
behaviorist believe it is because they are getting reinforced with attention, people care of them
Hypochondriasis
frequent physical complaints for which a doctor cannot find a cause
think that a headache is a sign of severe physical illness, always concerned about health
minor cough- go to the ER
Dissociative Disorder
involve some kind of sudden loss in cognition (memory, perception, even identity)
3 kinds: amnesia, fugue, identity
Dissociative Amnesia
when a person cannot remember a traumatic event because itbis too painful to think of
a woman who has lost a baby during childbirth
Dissociative Fugue
experience dissociative amnesia but also cannot remember their own identity or life
wake up one day and don't know where they are, who they are, who family/friends are
Dissociative Identity
AKA multiple personalities
person has several personalities that can represent different ages and sexes
often have history of sexual abuse or childhood trauma
Mood Disorders
extreme/inappropriate emotions
major depression-most common
depressive episode must be be present for at least 2 weeks for no clear reason, loss of appetite, fatigue, change in sleeping patterns, feeling worthless/suicidal, lack of interest in normal enjoyable activities
Mood Disorders
depression with seasonal patterns- recurs in the winter months, happens because of less direct sunlight
Mood Disorders
bipolar disorder-combo manic/depressive attitudes
manic episode-high energy, heightened sense of power, confidence, irritable, anxiety
Bipolar Disorder
causes: elevated levels of stress, negative ideas of themselves
learned helplessness...
Schizophrenia
cognitive disturbance demonstrated through delusions, hallucinations, disorganization, reduced interest /enjoyment
Schizophrenia
delusions- belief that have no basis in reality
of grandeur- Jesus came to me last night and told me to make a list of people I know that should go to heaven
of persecution-CIA is after me, my husband wants to kill me
Schizophrenia
paranoid- delusions of persecution, others are out to get/kill him
catatonic- remain motionless in strange postures for hours, move jerkily, can move body into shapes and hold the pose
disorganized-odd uses of language, make up own words, talk nonsense, inapp. laugh
Personality Disorder
maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively effect people's ability to function
antisocial, dependent, narcissistic, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive
Antisocial Personality DX
have no regard for other people, low tolerance for frustration, think the world is a hostile place, act on impulse, lie, fight, cheat, steal, truants, blame everyone else for their problems, emotionless, guiltless, drug users, most criminals have antisocial personality DX
Dependent Personality DX
cannot make their own decisions, passive-aggressive people, low self esteem, rely on others for attention
Narcissistic Personality DX
narcissism=love yourself
sees themselves as the center of the universe, think they are very important, require constant attention, cannot handle criticism, feels entitled, celebrities often have this
Histrionic Personality DX
overly dramatic behavior, exaggerated expression of emotions, charming but do not have genuine concern for others
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality DX
perfectionist, workaholics
Developmental Disorders
disorders of infancy, childhood, and adolescence
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, eating disorders
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD
unable to focus, easily distracted, quickly change activities
diagnosed more in boys than girls
Autism
lack of responsiveness to people, impaired verbal and nonverbal communication, limited activities and interests
repetitive behaviors
Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia
more in adolescent females
anorexia-weight less than 85% of normal,
restricted food consumption, unrealistic body image
bulimia-eating binges followed by vomiting or use of laxatives, may causes loss of tooth enamel, swollen glands, sore throat, dehydra
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