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Historical Criminal Justice Theories

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Fiona Wolfe

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Historical Criminal Justice Theories

Team B
Historical Criminal Justice Theories

Organizational Theories Timeline
Adam Smith (1776) Division of Labor
Karl Marx (1870s) Industrial Revolution
Henry Ford (1908) "Fordism" mass assembly line"
Frederick W. Taylor (1911) "Taylorism" Scientific Management
Henri Fayol (1916) Theory of Administration
Max Weber (1920) Bureaucratic Theory
Mary Parker Folletts (1924) Observations on Organizations and Management "Prophet of Management)
Elton Mayo (1932) The Hawthorne Studies
John Maynard Keynes (1936) "The general theory of employment, interest and money

Organizational Theories Timeline Cont.
Chester I. Barnard (1938) "The Functions of the Executive"
Abraham Maslow (1943) Hierarchy of Needs
Kurt Lewin (1946) Organization Development
David McClelland (1950s) Need Theory
Frederick Herzberg (1968) Motivational Theory
James Q. Wilson (1968) "Varieties of Police Behavior"
Robert Kaplan (1990s) Management Accounting
Peter F. Drucker (1995) "Management Guru" (the father of modern management)
Stewart Clegg (2009) "Modern Organizations"
August Vollmer
Leonhard F. Fuld
Orlando Wilson
References
Organizational Theory
Organizational theory is the study of organizational designs and structures, the relationship of organizations with their external environment, and the behavior of administrators and managers within organizations.
Criminal Justice
Organizational Principles and Corrections
Leaders in correctional management began making contributions to the better organization of prisons and jails in the 19th century. Such early leaders were John Howard, Jeremy Bentham, Alexander Maconochie, Dorothea Lynde Dix, Elam Lynds, and Zebulon Reed Brockway. In the 20th century, new ideas were offered by reform-minded leaders seeking to further improve on prison and jail organization. Three famous 20th-century correctional reformers were Katharine Bement Davis, Mary Belle Harris, and George Beto.
Principles of Management
Leading
- is the intangible attribute that sets the successful manager apart from his or her also-ran competitors. It is not the particular style of leadership that is the critical factor, but the attribute itself that makes one person a leader and leaves others behind as mere supervisors or officeholders
Organizing
- from Theory Y (human relations) management, is said that such organization must consider human factors and not be the cold, impersonal human engineering originally implied. Some of the basic principles of organization operate in opposition to one another. This represents a further challenge to the smart manager, for the sayings of organization are sound and need to be applied.
Deciding
- as a wise manager is one who knows when and how to assemble the judgments of others; to weigh the suggestions and opinions of subordinates, peers, and superiors; to factor in budgetary considerations; and to plan ahead, developing tactics and grand strategies within the organizational system.
Evaluating
- is needed to see that the desired effect is being achieved. The modern manager must develop the evaluative techniques that permit him or her to criticize the defects of the work without undermining the self-confidence of the individual or group undertaking the work.
Staffing
- is important in this era of affirmative action, equal opportunity, equality of and for women, comparable pay for comparable work, veterans’ preference, and so on.
Training
- is not simply an entry-level activity in public service careers. In-service training programs are more of a management responsibility and concern than they were in the early days of scientific management. Increasing levels of education as a precondition to entry into public service careers have not been enough to overcome the demands of the new, high-tech public service workplace.
Allocating
- consists of assigning people to tasks and budgeting funds, time, and resources to support those tasks are part of the functions of the public service manager.
Reporting
- is an aspect of both communicating and of public accountability. It is also the essence of accountability, another key concept and responsibility in the work of the public service manager.


Organizational Principles and the Courts
Some organizations do not fit the bureaucratic pattern well like the courts. Court officials, both judges and clerks of court, are elected in many states. The courts are a meeting place for multiple bureaucracies with competing goals and objectives. Nevertheless, leaders in the judiciary have made significant organizational improvements in the courts. The most noteworthy of these court reformers was Arthur Vanderbilt.
History of Management
According to Ronald Lynch, the history of management can be divided into three approaches and time periods:
(1) scientific management (1900–1940),
(2) human relations management (1930–1970), and
(3) systems management (1965–present).

Another important element to the concept of organizations: bureaucratic management
Organizational Principles and Law Enforcement
Introducing the concepts of organizational theory to law enforcement were Leonhard F. Fuld, August Vollmer, and Orlando W. Wilson. Fuld penned the first American book on police administration (1910), intended primarily for police executives. Vollmer and
Wilson were mentor and protégé. Together, these two men substantially altered the path of law enforcement in the United States in the first half of the 20th century. Both were prolific writers on police organization and administration (Vollmer, 1936; Wilson, 1950).
Raymond Fosdick (1920), Elmer Graper (1921), and Bruce P. Smith (1940) were other pioneers in the application of scientific management principles to law enforcement.

Kania, R. R. E., & Davis, R. P. (2012). Managing criminal justice
organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. (2nd ed.)
Waltham, MA: Elsevier/Anderson Publishing.

"Organization Theory." Encyclopedia of Small Business. 2007.
Retrieved June 05, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com:
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2687200428.html

Peak, K. J. (2012). Justice administration: Police, courts, and
corrections management. (7th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson
Education.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational behavior.
(15th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall.

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