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FACTORS INFLUENCING ABSENTEEISM AND LATENESS

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Nani Az

on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of FACTORS INFLUENCING ABSENTEEISM AND LATENESS

FACTORS INFLUENCING ABSENTEEISM AND LATENESS
LITERATURE REVIEW
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPREATION
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
INTRODUCTION
Advisor :
Dr. Shaiful Annuar Khalid

Group Members :
Nani Azreen Azmi (Group Leader) (2011243876)
Syafizah Ghazali (Member 1)
(2011260098)

COMPANY'S ISSUES
Absenteeism and lateness are one of the withdrawal behavior that Company XYZ facing in recent years. This will affect the Company XYZ's overall performance.
Increase in lateneess and absenteeism in Company XYZ have been an issues which can affect the production.
Absenteeism and lateness issues also cause a negative impact in an organization such as from the aspect of cost.
Frequencies for Absenteeism in 2012
Frequencies Absenteeism in 2013
Frequencies Lateness in 2012 & 2013
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Several issues of withdrawal behavior in Company that has been detected by human resource department. An increase of withdrawal behavior gives an impact to the organization.
Negative impact
Decreasing in services
Adds an additional task of finding and replacing the absent workers
Company will suffer in term of loss of time and cost

SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Focus on factors:
Dimensions of OCB (conscientiousness, civic virtue and sportsmanship)
Career commitment
Work-family conflict
Motivation
Stress
Focus on Factory Division ( monthly rated)
Data been provided without Managers and Executives.
Total monthly rated Factory Division workers of 277 (without Managers and Executives.

Withdrawal Behaviour
Pinder (2008) defined that withdrawal behaviours are the actions a person takes when they become physically and/or psychologically disengaged from the organization
Absenteeism
Hirsh (2002) defined that absenteeism as habitual absence from work to reflect employee demoralization or dissatisfaction
Lateness
Lateness is described as arriving late to work or leaving before the end of the day (Koslowsky, 2000)

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
POPULATION AND SAMPLE
Target Population
In Company XYZ as of 30th June, the total number of employees are 410 for the factory site. The total consists of:
Monthly rated:
Managers and Executives - 36 personnel
Others - 277 personnel
Daily rated - 97 personnel
Sampling Frame
List of 277 others monthly rated employees in Company XYZ
List obtained from HR Department
Sampling Technique
Convenience Sampling as the sampling technique for this research.
Sampling size
277 respondents.
sample size needed will be 162 respondents.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
DATA COLLECTION
Personally Administrative Questionnaire
277 questionnaires will be distributed personally to respondents and each of supervisors in every Department in Company XYZ.
Has the opportunity to introduce the research topic and motivate the respondents to offer their frank answers.
Inexpensive.
DATA ANALYSIS METHOD
Plan Data Analysis
Reliability Analysis (Alpha)
Frequency Distribution Analysis
Pearson Correlation Coefficients
Multiple Regression Analysis
Coefficient of determination

INTERVIEWS
High Level Management
First Interviewee
Second Interviewee
Supervisors
Interview with 2 Supervisors at the same time
Employees
Interview was conducted with two different situations and for a short of time.
For first situation whereby involve four employees.
The second situation involved two employees who can be considered as having problems with the withdrawal behaviour.
SWOT FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
SWOT Finding
SWOT ANALYSIS
Dysfunctional Behavior
The employees – low discipline.
Members don’t get along, people distrust each other.
Members don’t agree on who is responsible for the problem and what the group should do about it.
The employee rigid in changes.
Poor relationship between top management and lower management.
Poor Management
Lower benefit from the Company.
Poor relationship between top management and lower management.
Slowness to change.
Unhealthy environment.
Increase pay grade.
Manpower
High cost.
Missing expertise in some areas.
Teamwork.
Availability of skilled manpower.
Good compensation
Bonuses been provided as high as seven month.
Share investment been given to the employees.

Established Company
Subsidiaries under one big giant Company in Malaysia.
It is consumer product that people consume everyday.
The Company has the opportunities to expand globally.
Demand for consumer product world wide.
Growing world population.
Technology
Technologies advances.
Technology skills.
Cost of technology investment.

QUESTIONNAIRE
Planned to distribute the questionnaire personally to each of Supervisors for respective Department, but the researchers cannot go into factory side due to safety.
The researchers asked for help from two persons that had been approved by their Head of Department to distribute the questionnaires in the Factory
Total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents
Out of 250 questionnaires distributed, 172 were returned to the researchers
Analysis of the survey the researchers decided to use SPSS program version 16 to analyse the data.
Frequency Analysis
Table 4.1 Demography

Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Reliability
Correlation
Table 4.5 Correlations
Regression
Table 4.6 Regression (absenteeism)

Table 4.6 Regression (lateness)

DISCUSSION
The reliability test has shown the Cronbach’s Alpha values for all variables are exceeding .70.
Pearson Correlation it has found that absenteeism and lateness is significantly correlate to each of the independent variables at .01 and .05 (level - two tail).
Job stress significantly related with absenteeism and lateness.

CONCLUSION
The result of the multiple regression analysis, it is clear that job stress is the most influential factor influencing absenteeism and lateness among employees in Company XYZ.

Recommendation to the future researcher
Suggest that the future researcher will increase the respondents for their research.
Proposed that this research will perform in- depth interview
Suggest to the future research to conduct a brainstorming session
Suggest to focus more on job stress that the Company XYZ is currently facing.
Suggest that future research should focus on lateness.
Recommendation to the Company XYZ
Offering Incentives
Changing the working Environment and Culture
Additional holidays
Ideas to create a relaxing environment at work
Leader Motivating Language

To the Company XYZ
Information, finding and recommendation that been provided by the researchers.
To the Employees
Good performance – good production – increase sales – more incentive (bonus).
To the Researchers
Develop in the areas of the intellectual interpersonal participation cooperation and decision skills.

Organizational Citizenship Behaviour
described as an individual behaviour that is discretionary and not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that OCB promotes the effective functioning of an organization (Organ, 1988)
Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness is a discretionary behaviour on the part of an employee in the areas of attendance, obeying rules and regulations, breaks, and so forth (Organ, 1988a; Podsakoff 2000; Smith, 1983)
Civic Virtue
Civic virtue is a behaviour on the part of individuals indicating that they responsibly participate in, are involved in, or are concerned about, the life of the organization (Organ, 1988a; Podsakoff, 2000)
Sportsmanship
describes the willingness of employees to tolerate less than ideal circumstances without complaining (Organ, 1988; Podsakoff, 2000)
Career Commitment
Can be defined as a job or profession for which one undergoes training over a period of time, and which one intends to follow for the whole of one’s life. (Popoola & Oliwole, 2007)
Work- Family Conflict
According to Jijena-Michel (2012), the conflict between work and family is where the pressure of the roles that are assumed in work and family are somehow not compatible.
Motivation
Motivation has been defined by Kreitner (1995) as the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction.
Stress
Stress at work is a well-known factor for low motivation and morale, decrease in performance, high turnover and sick leaves, accident, low job satisfaction, low quality product and service, poor internal communication and conflict (Schabracq and Cooper, 2000; Murphy, 1995, McHugh, M 1993).
Interview
High level Management
Supervisors
Employees
SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of company XYZ
SWOT analysis is used from information that the researchers get in the interview with the respondents.
Questionnaire
The questionnaire was distributed to the respective Supervisors during the day shift and collected one week later.
Used 5 point likert scale.
Divide into 7 parts
As a token of appreciation for the respondents that completing the questionnaires, the researchers decided to give a small gift to each of the respondents

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