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Extinct Political parties of the 1800's

Politics
by

Courtney Plunk

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Extinct Political parties of the 1800's

Extinct Political Parties of the 1800's By: Courtney Plunk, Sara Levi, and Daniel Fields The Democratic and Republican Parties can trace their roots back to the 1800's, but some of the most interesting stories in American political history spring from parties which enjoyed flashes of glory before fading away for good. First political party in America. Formed before the constitution was ratified.

Believe in strong national government.

Led by John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and John Marshall.

The party didn't have sustaining party objectives, so when the party lost in the 1800 election, it essentially ceased to be a National Party by 1816. Federalist party George Washington and John Adams where federalists. "The federalist party was associated with the aristocracy and fought for the development of industry over agriculture. Federalists typically favored allying with Great Britain over France. The federalist party favored a stronger central government as opposed to stronger individual states" (McNamara). (Jeffersonian) Republican Party Known as the Democratic-Republican Party

Ancestor of the Democratic Party

Evolved in the 1790's during George Washington's presidency

Believed a large central government would cause a threat to the liberties of the individual

Wanted strong ties with France and supported the French Revolution

Wanted to protect the working classes

Believed in having an agrarian economy. Supported John Quincy Adams in his unsuccessful bid for reelection in 1828
No party designations in the election of 1824
Supported Henry Clay in 1832
General theme of the National Republican Party was opposition to Andrew Jackson and his policies.
National Republicans generally joined the Whig Party in 1834
Not a forerunner of the Republican Party, which formed in the mid-1850's
"Era of Good Feelings" highlighted the existence of the only political party.
The main rivals were the federalists.
Jackson's overwhelming victory in 1832 spelled the end for the National Republicans. National Republican Party Supported Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1800
Formed in opposition to the Federalists
Tended to be more egalitarian than the Federalists.
At times it was called a name which seems contradictory today, the Democratic-Republican party. The Anti-Masonic Party Formed in upstate New York in the late 1820s,following the mysterious death of a member of the masonic order, William Morgan.
It was believed that Morgan was killed before he could reveal secrets about the masons and their suspected influence in American Politics.
Seemingly based on conspiracy theory
Held the first national political convention in America
Nominated William Wirt in 1831 as its presidential candidate for the 1832 elections.
Part of the appeal of the party was its strong opposition to Andrew Jackson who was a Mason.
The party faded into obscurity in 1836 and its members drifted into the Whig party which also opposed Jackson.
The original third party to be active on the national scene.
There were a lot of members of the party in New York state, where the political machine, the Albany regency was run by Martin Van Buren who was a Mason. The Know Nothing was a movement by the nativist American political faction of the1850s, characterized by political xenophobia, anti-catholic sentiment, and occasional bouts of violence against the group the nativists targeted.
1854 to 1856-curb immigration and naturalization.
Membership was limited to Protestant males of British American lineage.
Issue of Slavery.
American Republican Party spread as the Native American Party.
Won a few thousand votes in 1844
Outsiders called them "Know Nothings" and the name stuck. In 1855 the Know Nothings first entered politics under the American Party label
"Know Nothing" term: semi-secret organization ofthe party. When amember was asked about its activities, he was supossed to reply. "I Know Nothing". KnowNothing Fear of Catholic immigration led to a dissatisfaction with the Democratic Party, whose leadership in many cities included Irish American Catholics.
They formed secret groups, coordinating their votes and throwing their weight behind candidates sympathetic to their cause.
This movement won elections in major cities from Chicago to Boston in 1855, and the Massachusetts legislature and governorship.
The results of the 1854 elections were so favorable to the Know Nothings that they formed officially as apolitical party called the American Party, and attracted many members of the now nearly-defunct Whig Party. From 50,000 to an estimated one million pus in a matter of months during that year.
The Major exceptions were Schuyler Colfax in India and Henry Wilson in Massachusetts, who became Republicans and both were elected Vice President.
Few Know-Nothings were wealthy, but their incomes, occupation and social status were about average, according the detailed historical studies of once-secret membership rosters.
Fewer than 10% were unskilled workers who might come in direct competition with Irish labors. Enlisted few farmers, included many merchants and factory owners. The voters were by no mean sall native born Americans.
It especially appealed to Lutherans, Dutch Reformed and Presbyterians.
Declined rapidly in the North after 1855. In the Election of 1856 it was bitterly divided over slavery.
After the Supreme Court's controversial Dred Scott V. Sanford ruling in 1847, most of the anti-slavery members of the American Party joined the Republican Party. The pro-slavery wing of the American Party remained strong on the local and state levels in a few southern states, but by the1860 election, they were no longer a serious national political movement.
Most of their remaining members supported the Constitutional Union Party in 1860.
The platform of the American Party called for, among other things,
Severe limits on immigration
Restricting political office to native-born Americans of English and/or Scottish lineage and Protestant persuasions. Mandating a wait of 21 years before an immigrant could gain citizenship.
Restricting public school teacher positions to Protestants.
Mandating daily Bible readings in public school.
Restricting the sale of liquor.
Restricting the use of languages other than English. Free-Soil Party The Free-Soil Party developed in part from a political rivalry in New York State.
Whig and Liberty parties formed the Free-Soil party.
The resulting Free Soil Party was built on a coalition of four elements: the previous Liberty Party, Free-Soil Democrats, Barnburners, and Conscience Whigs.
The convention adopted a platform that called for: opposition to the extension of slavery into the territories, Support for national internal improvement programs, support for moderate tarrifs designed for revenue only, and Support for the enactment of a homestead law. The party supported cheap postage, free lands for actual settlers, the abolition of unnecessary offices and salaries, and improvements for rivers and harbors.
The faliure to ever win a single electoral vote, plus the deepening crisis highlghted by the Kansas Nebraska Act (1854), ended the Free-Soilers' hopes.
Many of its members moved on to the new Republican Party as their best hope to prevent the extension of slavery into the territories. The Liberty Party was a minor political party in the United states in the 1840s. With some off-shoots stretching into thev1850 to 1860s.
It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society. They advocated the view that the Constitution was an anti-slavery document.
Included abolitionists who were willing to work within electoral politics to try to influence people to support their goals.
Its first national conventions took place in Arcade on April 1, 1840.
The Liberty party platform of 1843 resolved "to regard and to treat" the fugitive slave clause of the U.S. constitution "as utterly null and void, and consequently forming no part of the Constitution of the United states".
The party did no attract much support.
Many Liverty Party members met in Buffalo New York with other groups in August 1848 to form the Free Soil Party. Liberty Party (United States,1840) The 1848 platform strongly condemned the perceived attmepts to moderate the party.
The party began to openly advocate various general moralistic policies, such as prohibitions on alcohol, gambling, and prostitution.
The twenty-secondplank ofthe1849 platform praised Lysander Spooner's book The Unconstitutionality of Slavery. The Whig Party was an American political party originally formed as a reaction to the policies of Andrew Jackson in the 1830's.
The Whigs won the presidency in 1840 and 1848, with the election of William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor.
The party eventually fractured and essentially ceased to exit after a lack of success in the 1852 presidential election.
Whigs and their ideas influenced the new Republican Party.
Lincoln, had once been a Whig.
Slavery was the issue that split the party.
Never a truly consistent Whig. Whig Party Between 1862 and1865 the government printing presses $450 million in greenbacks, paper notes that were not backed by reserves of specie.
Generated inflation, which was regarded as a favorable event since it would be easier to pay off debts with "cheap money.
This pint of view was adopted by many Democrats who floated a scheme to redeem war bonds in greenbacks.
The Republicans as the representatives of the wealth creditor interests wanted the greenbacks removed from circulation and the return to a gold-backed currency.
Halt inflation and assure that they would be repaid in hard money.
Farmers and debtors bore the brunt of the economic distress and issued calls for the printing of additional greenbacks and the unlimited coinage of silver.
These calls for action were transformed into a political movement and, in 1876, into a political party.
Its members drifted off to the Union Labor Party and the Populist Party. The Greenback Party
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