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Transcript of Space
Once this big ball of rock was created (however it happened), it began to expand and exploded. The Universe went from very small, very dense, and very hot to the cool expanse that we see today. This theory was born of the observation that other galaxies are moving away from our own at great speed, in all directions. The Big Bang theory is not the only theory to how the world began, it is just the most popular.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of our Solar System. The word "helios" in Greek means "sun." The planets in such a system naturally vary in brightness because they are not always the same distance from the Earth.
The geocentric model is a description where Earth is at the orbital center of all celestial bodies. It was assumed that the Sun, Moon, stars, and naked eye planets circled Earth. A common notion supporting the geocentric model was that the Earth does not seem to move from the perspective of an Earth bound observer, and that it is solid, stable, and unmoving.
The Final Frontier,
A place unknown
When a meteor produces enough light to cast a shadow on the earth it is called a fireball.
On any night, any location, a few meteors can be seen each hour.
Small pieces of space debris that are on a collision course with the Earth are called meteoroids. When meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere they are called meteors. Most meteors burn up in the atmosphere, but if they survive the frictional heating and strike the surface of the Earth they are called meteorites.
Asteroids are minor planets, but the larger ones have also been called planetoids.
The large majority of known asteroids orbit in the asteroid belt.
This belt is now estimated to contain between 1.1 and 1.9 million asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter.
Most asteroids stay in the asteroid belt. This is because of the gravitational pull of all the planets around them.
A comet is an icy body that releases gas or dust.
Comets contain dust, ice, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and more.
The solid, core structure of a comet is known as the nucleus.
Comets orbit the sun cathing the fire that makes its "tail".
Mercury is the smallest plant in our solar system, only slightly bigger than Earth's moon, and of course having no moon of its own.
Mercury has an orbital period of about 88 Earth days.
In Roman mythology Mercury is the god of commerce, travel and thievery, the Roman counterpart of the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the Gods. The planet probably received this name because it moves so quickly across the sky.
Mercury's inside is is mostly made up of iron.
Mercury actually has a very thin atmosphere consisting of atoms blasted off its surface by the solar wind. Because Mercury is so hot, these atoms quickly escape into space.
Venus and Earth are often called twins because they are similar in size, mass, density, composition and gravity.
Venus's atmosphere is made mainly of carbon dioxide with clouds of sulfuric acid.
The atmosphere is heavier than that of any other planet, leading to a surface pressure 90 times that of Earth.
The Venusian year — the time it takes to orbit the sun — is about 225 Earth days long.
It is the only planet that has liquid water on its surface and because of Earth's atmosphere made up of mostly nitrogen and oxygen it makes it the planet just right for humans to live..
Earth is the third planet from the Sun. It is the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System, and also the largest of the four terrestrial planets.
Most of the mass of the Earth is in the mantle, most of the rest in the core.
71 Percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water.
The bright rust color Mars is known for is due to to iron-rich minerals in its regolith — the loose dust and rock covering its surface.
The red planet is home to both the highest mountain and the deepest, longest valley in the solar system.
Mars has the largest volcanoes in the solar system, including Olympus Mons, which is about 370 miles in diameter, wide enough to cover the entire state of New Mexico.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.
Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system.
The colorful bands of Jupiter are arranged in dark belts and light zones created by strong east-west winds in the planet's upper atmosphere traveling more than 400 mph.
The white clouds in the zones are made of crystals of frozen ammonia, while darker clouds of other chemicals are found in the belts.
The most amazing feature on Jupiter is undoubtedly the Great Red Spot, a giant hurricane-like storm seen for more than 300 years.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system. Although the other gas giants in the solar system — Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune — also have rings, those of Saturn are without a doubt the most extraordinary.
Saturn is a gas giant made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. Saturn is big enough to hold more than 760 Earths, and is more massive than any other planet except Jupiter, roughly 95 times Earth's mass
Saturn is the farthest planet from Earth visible to the naked human eye. The yellow and gold bands seen in Saturn's atmosphere are the result of super-fast winds in the upper atmosphere, which can reach up to 1,100 mph (1,800 kph) around its equator, combined with heat rising from the planet's interior.
Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron, nickel and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds), surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium and an outer gaseous layer.
Uranus is blue-green in color, the result of methane in its mostly hydrogen-helium atmosphere.
The planet is often dubbed an ice giant, since 80 percent or more of its mass is made up of a fluid mix of water, methane, and ammonia ices.
Uranus has 27 known moons.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System.
Neptune’s cloud cover has an especially vivid blue tint that is partly due to an as-yet-unidentified compound and the result of the absorption of red light by methane in the planets mostly hydrogen-helium atmosphere.
It is often called an ice giant, since it possesses a thick, slushy fluid mix of water, ammonia and methane ices under its atmosphere and is roughly 17 times Earth's mass and nearly 58 times its volume.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third-largest by mass.
Neptune's rings may consist of ice particles coated with silicates or carbon-based material, which most likely gives them a reddish hue. The three main rings are the narrow Adams Ring, 63,000 km from the center of Neptune, the Le Verrier Ring, at 53,000 km, and the broader, fainter Galle Ring, at 42,000 km.
The two categories both consist of 4 planets each.
All of the planets orbit the sun.
They are bigger.
They are colder and farther from the sun.
They are gassy.
They are smaller.
They are warmer and closer to the sun.
They are rocky and solid.
Inner Planets vs. Outer Planets
Gravity and Orbits