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Ancient Rome

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on 10 October 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Rome

Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
-Brothers who served as tribunes;Tiberius created farms for the poor

-Conflict over farms led to riots and Tiberius was killed

-Gaius tried later on to create more farms & sell cheaper food (angered many and was killed)

-Death of the brothers proved death could be used as a political weapon

Marius & Sulla
Spartacus
-Former gladiator

-Led thousands of slaves & demanded freedom
-defeated an army (took southern Italy)

-Killed in battle and revolt fell a part--6,000 slaves executed


Marius & Sulla
-Politicians are angry over lost support

- Sulla (politician) is a consul and is in conflict with Marius

-Conflict leads to civil war

-Sulla defeats Marius (dictator) & punishes enemies
Disorder in the Republic
-Rome is a dangerous place--politicians/generals fight for power

-Cicero (orator)
-tried to stop the chaos
-limit power of the generals
-Give more support to senate and restore checks & balances
Julius Caesar
-Great general, admired for his bravery and skill

-Conquered Gaul(France)

-Excellent speaker

-Powerful allies; Pompey and Crassus
Conflict with Pompey
-Pompey's senate allies ordered him to give up his armies (Pompey to rule alone)

-Casear refused; Crossed the Rubicon River with his armies
-Roman law stated no general could enter Italy with his army
Julius Caesar Returns to Rome
-Declares himself Dictator for Life

-Admired by army and generous to the poor

-Others resented his power--next king?

-Senators(less power) were very angry...
GOAL!
Ancient Rome
-107 BC: Romans NEED more troops
-Marius encourages the poor to join

-Thousands of poor people join

-The poor are loyal to Marius thus giving him power
Lucius Cornelius
magistrate
-Pompey flees Italy

-Caesar's army chases him for a year until he is defeated in Greece

-Later killed in Egypt
The Death of Julius Caesar
-March 15th 44 BC (Ides of March)

-Senators stab Caesar to death
-Next Leaders: Marc Antony & Octavian
related to Caesar
-Avenge Caesar's death; defeated killers & any remaining killed themselves
Conflict With Antony & Octavian
-Octavian returns to Italy & Antony goes East to battle

-Antony marries Octavia (sister of?)
-Later divorces her to marry Cleopatra of Egypt
-Octavian is angry; civil war breaks out
Conflict With Antony & Octavian
-- They meet at the Battle of Actium

-Antony is defeated but escapes to Egypt

-Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide to avoid capture

-Octavian is sole ruler; becomes AUGUSTUS
Octavian

Augustus
Empire
Republic
Paul of Tarsus
-Most important in spread of Christianity

-Wrote letters about Resurrection &
Salvation

-Explained Christians didn't have to obey all Jewish laws & rituals

-Helped break away from Judaism
Fall of Rome

Political
Political Corruption:

-No system of electing new emperors
-Emperor title sold to highest bidder
-25 emperors assassinated
Fall of Rome
Social
Decline in Morals & Values:
-Emperors threw lavish parties
-Hosted TONS of gladiator fights (*little work*)

Public Health:
-Lead pipes caused disease among the wealthy
-Blood from Coliseum ran into the streets; caused disease

Fall of Rome
Social Cont.
Urban Decay:
-Small, smelly apartments
-Buildings were falling apart
-Homeless lived on the streets (no shelters)

Inferior Technology:
-Stopped advancing/inventing (not keeping up)
-Relied on animal labor--not machines

Fall of Rome
Economic
Unemployment:
-Farmers could not compete with cheap prices (from slave labor)
-Lost farms

Inflation:
-Lack of gold for coins
-Merchants raised prices
-Begin to pay with fruits/vegetables
Fall of Rome
Military
Military Spending:
-Roman troops lost desire to fight--paid foreign troops
-Raised taxes to fund military

Invasion:
-Germanic tribes attack and destroy cities (burn/destroy bridges/roads)
-Attila the Hun- Leader of the Huns, attacks in the east
Fall of Rome
-Political Corruption
-Urban Decay
-Decline in Morals & Values
-Public Health
-Unemployment
-Inflation
-Military Spending
-Invasion
-Inferior Technology
Diocletian & Constantine
-Emperor Diocletian believes the empire is too large--divides it in 2

-He ruled the east and another person ruled west

-Emperor Constantine reunited the empire BUT moved the capital to the east (Constantinople)
*Power moved to the east-> No longer Rome*



From- Carthage
Job- Brilliant general
Defeated troops at Zama, almost
defeated the Romans
Hannibal
Involved- Rome & Carthage
1st- Carthage sends troops to Sicily; Rome follows.
-Rome gains control 20yrs. later

2nd- Carthage attacks Rome (Hannibal)
-Romans sent to Zama & defeat Hannibal

3rd-Roman senators fear Carthage’s power
-Romans attack destroying city and taking slaves
Rome wins all 3

Punic Wars
Definition- duty to the city

Responsibilities- make sure
city prospered, attend meetings and vote

Other- holding office came with respect

Civil Duty
Purpose- Center of life in Rome, laws displayed

Activities-gov’t buildings, shopping, speeches,
gossip, ceremonies, gladiator fights

Other- located between Palatine & Capitoline hills

Forum
Italy= peninsula
Mountains- Alps, Apennines
Bodies of Water- Tiber & Po Rivers
Climate- mild for growing crops
Other- Rugged, hilly, cities on hill tops

Geography of Rome
Legion= groups of up to 6,000 soldiers

Description- legions divided into
centuries (100 soldiers). Very organized and flexible

Other- Defeated most enemies fighting
large or small groups

Roman Legions
Name of 1st King- Romulus
Last king- cruel and killed many
people (overthrown)
Etruscans(last 3 kings)- People
who lived north of Rome
-built temples, 1st sewer

7 Kings of Rome
Low Class- Plebeian; commoners, majority of pop.,
eventually gained participation in gov’t.

High Class- Patrician; wealthy, nobles, minority of pop., once had sole control of gov’t.

Other- Plebeians formed a council of officials which scared Patricians (fear of rebellion); forced changes

Class Structure
Magistrates Senate Assemblies/Tribunes
Job- Power over all citizens
rejected laws



Term- 1 year



Other- *Consuls (most powerful)


Advised Consuls
Controls finances
Life
Gains great power,
wealthy
Protects commoners,
elects magistrates, VETO power
1 year
Very powerful
-Republic- gov’t where people elect their leaders
-Law of the Twelve Tables- **Written Down** *Checks and balances
Government Structure
twin boys raised by wolves
Romulus kills Remus in an argument over what the
name of Rome should be

***myth describing the birth of Rome

Romulus & Remus
-Aeneid is a Latin epic poem that describes the story of Aeneas
-Aeneas was a Trojan prince who led the Trojans to Rome & his family became the rulers of Rome.
**myth describing the birth of Rome
Aeneas & The Aeneid
Roman Achievements: Pax Romana
• Means “Roman Peace”
• Lasted 200 years
• Results: trade increases;
Rome became wealthy,
population increases, quality of life improves

Roman Achievements: Science & Engineering
• Galen: great doctor; herbs as medicine;
studies the body; describes valves of heart
• Aqueducts: moved water
• Vaults: used for big openings & to help buildings stand
• Arches: more sturdy; durable buildings
• Paved roads: durable; connected all parts of the empire
• Made cement
• Stone bridges

Roman Achievements: Architecture
• Colosseum: created for gladiator fights;
large stone building
• Copied Greeks
• Open spaces & columns
• Used marble
• Dome tops

Roman Achievements: Art
• Mosaics, paintings & statues
• Frescoes: painting done on plaster
• Based off of Greeks

Roman Achievements: Literature & Language
• Writers: Virgil (the Aeneid), Ovid (poems & myths)
• Wrote in Latin – used in government and law
• Later developed Romance Languages: Italian,
French, Spanish, Portuguese & Romanian

Roman Achievements: Law
• Civil Law: legal system based on a written code of laws – displayed in Forum
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