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Summer 2014 revision session Civil Rights

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andrew mountford

on 7 May 2015

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Transcript of Summer 2014 revision session Civil Rights

Fight against racist Nazi enemy - showed the ugly side of right-wing racism (i.e. KKK)
+ War propaganda emphasized equality and democracy
Black soldiers experienced desegregated Europe
NAACP membership went from 50,000 to 200,000 during the war
Heroism of black soldiers
Economic importance of black workforce during WWII
This was called the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
-Its impact was that blacks were employed in aircraft factories for the first time and there was a 25% increase in those working in the iron and steel industry
In 1941, A. Philip Randolph suggested a March on Washington by thousands of black people - proposed march abandoned when Roosevelt gives concessions
1942 James farmer forms CORE
A leading Civil Rights lawyer was Thurgood Marshall, who contested a number of cases paid for by the NAACP’s Legal Defence Fund
In voter registration, Smith v Allright in 1944 had ruled the all white Primary in Texas as unconstitutional
-As a result, the proportion of Blacks on the electoral register went from 2% in 1940 to 12% in 1947
Overturn Plessy vs Ferguson
Brown vs. Board of Topeka 1954
In 1946, Truman’s committee on Civil Rights which published a report called ‘to Secure these Rights’ in 1947
-This was designed to shock the United States with regards to civil rights
-It called for lynching to be made illegal, and end to segregation, and the Fair Employment Practices Commission to be made a permanent fixture in American life
Not fully implemented
-It concerned Linda Brown and an appeal made by her father, Oliver. Linda lived around the corner from a white school, but had to go to a black school over a mile away in Topeka, Kansas
Truman recognises Civil Rights agenda (also pressured by his moral stance against communism in the Cold War)
Sweatt. V Painter 1950
Makes some government appointments like Ralph Bunche (ambassador to UN)
Fair Deal Programme
Exec Order 9981 guaranteeing equality of treatment in the army
Is under pressure from Dixiecrats and Southern Democrats but wins 1948 election
CORE's journey of reconciliation 1947
(putting Morgan vs. Virginia into practice)
12 arrests out of 16 (proved companies weren't complying but didn't really lead to concrete gains)
UDL Louisiana Baton Rouge 1953
bus boycott (one week long) supported by 'Operation Free lift'
Important in growing movement and pioneering new methods but big achievements come later
Could argue that it all hinged on WWII
Or that even without WWII NAACP and Civil Rights campaigners were gaining in confidence and pioneering new methods
Sweatt v Painter 1950
Board vs Brown of ed. of Topeka
Highly significant de jure change - shows Supreme Court supporting Civil Rights movement (Earl Warren)
Boosts confidence of movement
But there is a white backlash (Emmett Till 1955) and in practice education is not equal
Morgan vs Virginia 1946
In voter registration, Smith v Allright in 1944 had ruled the all white Primary in Texas as unconstitutional
-As a result, the proportion of Blacks on the electoral register went from 2% in 1940 to 12% in 1947
Again significant in theory but as CORE's journey of rec. proves not necessarily in practice
CORE's Journey + UDL
Pioneers new methods that will be later used to great effect so in this sense significant but reveals the limitations of de jure success
Significant for some but probably limited
Again promise of To Secure these Rights not altogether backed up
Able to reach out and inspire Northern Blacks
Addressed cultural legacy of inferiority and asserted self-pride + education (reformed criminals of NOI)
Recognised African heritage (Malcolm X + Stokely Carmichael to Kwame Nkrumah)
Afro hairstyle - Angela Davis
Media + TV portrayal
Shaft (1971)
Music of Miles Davis
Liberation Schools - BPP
Survival programmes
Patrol the Pigs
Sickle Cell Anemia
Nation of Islam emphasises Black Separatism
Too politically radical (BPP - Marxist)
Alienated white supporters (who weren't allowed to participate)
Alienated politicians + Washington - COINTELPRO
Split a movement otherwise successful
Divided over Vietnam
SNCC and CORE critical of King
Criticism that King took too much media attention + was working too closely with political establishment
Malcolm X calls King "20th century Uncle Tom"
1966 personal relationships reach a low point during negotiations between NAACP, SCLC, CORE, SNCC and NUL over a protest march following the shooting of James Meredith - Carmichael (leader of SNCC) argued that he would no longer work with NAACP and NUL due to their conservatism - NAACP and NUL walked out of talks after Carmichael showered them with verbal abuse
In 1964 after King wins peace prize he stated that a 'centuries-old and traditional conflict was nearing its solution;
New socio-economic aims of King much more difficult to achieve because they go to the heart of the economic system in America
Moynihan Report 1965 not overly sympathetic
Chicago Campaign 1966
Poor People's campaign 1968
Less clarity over aims and objectives - not so much internal divisions as a more difficult target
Patrol the Pigs campaign tackled police racism
1968 Survival programmes
- Free breakfast for school children programme
- Free health clinics
- Free liberation schools
Although only localised these social programmes were copied across the globe by radical movements for social justice
by 1974 200+ health clinics across USA which treated 200,000 people a year
Although they didn't achieve revolution for a small group their political impact was impressive
Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act 1972
1977 BPP disbanded
Mention destructive tensions between NOI and MX
Civil Rights revision session for Summer 2014 exam
Tackling questions on topics 1,2,3 and 4
Civil Rights Movement 1945-1968

Jan 2009

• How important was the contribution of Martin Luther King to the civil rights movement in the years 1955–68?
• How far had the status of Hispanic and Native Americans improved by the late 1960s?

June 2009

• How far did the position of Black Americans improve in the years 1945–55?
• How far do you agree that the Black Power movement hindered Black civil rights in the 1960s?

Jan 2010

• To what extent was the Federal Government responsible for improving the status of black people in the United States in the years 1945–64?
• How far was the effectiveness of the civil rights movement in the 1960s limited by internal divisions?

June 2010

• How accurate is it to say that the status of black people in the United States changed very little in the years 1945–55?
• How far was peaceful protest responsible for the successes of the civil rights movement in the years 1955–64?

Jan 2011

• To what extent was the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) responsible for the successes of the civil rights campaign in the years 1945–57?
• How far were the forces opposed to civil rights responsible for the failures of the civil rights movement in the 1960s?

June 2011

• How far do you agree that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years 1945–55?
• How accurate is it to say that Martin Luther King’s policy of peaceful protest was the most important reason for the successes of the civil rights movement in the years 1955–68?

Jan 2012

• How successful was Martin Luther King’s campaign for civil rights in the years 1955–68?
• To what extent did the status of ethnic minorities, apart from African Americans, change in the 1960s?

June 2012

• How far do you agree that the years 1945–55 saw only limited progress in improving the status of African Americans?
• How accurate is it to say that the growth of Black Power was the most important factor in the weakening of the civil rights movement in the 1960s?

Jan 2013

• How accurate is it to say that peaceful protests were the most important reason for the improvement in the civil rights of African Americans in the years 1955–68?
• How far did the status of women and Native American Indians change during the 1960s?

June 2013

• How far were the Federal Government and the Supreme Court responsible for changing the status of African Americans in the years 1945–68?

To what extent did the aims and methods of Martin Luther King diffe
from those of Black Power activists?

Topic 1 - Beginnings of the movement 1945-1955 (6)
Topic 2 - Peaceful Protest 1955-1968 (7)
Topic 3 - Black Power 1960s (3)
Topic 4 - Countercultures and the struggle of women, hispanic, native Americans for equality (3)
Cross-topic questions (2)
The questions reveal the importance of knowing a broad chronology to know what to include in any essay
Thinking about cross-topic questions or whether they are causation of extent of change questions
Topic 1 Seeds of change 1945-1955
(Will v. quickly go through the two types of question on cause of change and extent of change (other Prezi) - these questions are v. straightforward
Cause of change - changed economic and political status from WWII v. significant as was increased organisational capacity of new movement
Extent of change - v. significant change and de jure change in particular that does advance position of movement significantly (though obv. with big, in particular de facto weaknesses)
Topic 3 Black Power 1960s
Also v. straightforward
Focus on achievements/failures
Whether Black Power (or civil rights opponents) undermined the
To what extent did the protest culture of the 1960s challenge the status quo and achieve advances in the Civil Rights of Americans other than African Americans?
Hispanic Americans
Native Americans
New-Left student Protest Culture
Significant challenge as part of 2nd and 3rd wave feminism which challenged women's economic position in society (liberal) and women's identity (radical)

Economic sphere - liberal
1960 (rising no. of women in workplace) still 3/5ths of women over 16 were not at work - income was 57% that ot men in 1960s + unpaid work
In response to women's protest Kennedy set up Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
However government refused to enforce Title VII or CR Act 1964 and the gap in earning between men and women was wider in 1969 than in 1963 - so despite higher profile campaign clearly failed to tackle economic issues of women
But could argue that it does challenge system and raise profile and set precedent for future improvements
NOW (Nat. Org. for Women) founded in 1966 by Betty Friedan aimed to bring women into 'full participation' in US society
Were successful - Johnson signed Exec Order 11375 outlawing sexual discrimination in the workplace - + Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) began to enforce Title VII more

+ Use of Courts like 1967 case Weeks vs Southern Bell - Lorena Weeks successfully (on second attempt) challenged Southern Bell Telephone Company and eventually in 1971 she won $31,000 back pay and set a precendent

Identity - like B Power less easily measurable and more emotive but can be said to empower women through increased political participation
Played party in CR Movement (SNCC and CORE) + inspiration from people like Rosa Parks, Angela Davis, Fannie Lou Hamer
To an extent blocked by male domination of New Left and Black Power
More confident Women's movement Betty Friedan Feminine Mystique argued women's lives had been dominated by men
Could argue that movement politically empowered women
Johnson appointed 50 women to top government posts (positive discrimination)

Experimentation with more radical forms of identity (reaction against patriachy)
Ti Grace Atkinson famous 1968 essay 'The Institution of Sexual intercourse' (love is a trap)
Radical groups like 'The Feminists' set up and New York Radical Women (NYRW) i.e. 1968 Miss World Protest
Arguably failed by alienating moderates and disengaging and escaping from patriachy rather than challenging

Overall there was an increased confidence and challenge though in the short term the economic gains (prob most important in increasing female power) were not so significant

Faced problems of seasonal employment (Chicano workers worked an average of 134 days a year in California) and general economic deprivation which in turn meant lack of political power and negative stereotyping
Renewed leadership raises their issues particularly through Cesar Chavez (Catholic can compare to MLK)
Organises workers through NFWA (Nat. Farm Workers Association) to organise La Huelga (1965) - 5 year strike involving 10,000 workers - co-ordinated by United Farm Workers (Chavistas)
Utilised strategies of CR movement i.e. use of media (Pilgrimage or Peregrinacion 340m march) + 25day fast 1968 + 1968 grape boycott (v. successful 1970 17m Americans stopped buying Californian grapes)
Strikes were successful but did take time and hardship - 1970 grape workers wages increased to min. wage and 1975 California Agricultural Labor Relations Act 1975
Was also more radical protest like Young Chicanos for Community Action

Movement never achieved fame of CR movement (less population and less urban and also movement somewhat fragmented) - However there were clear victories though perhaps sporadic
1960 523,591 Native Americans living in America (25% ling on reservations) - faced problems of loss of identity as well as lack of economic opportunities on reservations and joint prob of social problems
Reservations manged by BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) linked to Fed Govt
Unemployment on reservations sometimes as high as 70% during 1960s
Things did improve in 1960s
1964 CR Act abolished racial discrimination in employment and Johnson Edcuation Act 1965 helped (created National Advisory Council on Indian Education)
Encouraged by NA protest - Nat. Cong. of Am. Indians (NCAI) and Nat. Indian Youth Council (NIYC)
Successfully fought against Eisenhower's Termination
NCAI collaborated with Prof. Sol Tax at Uni. of Chicaco to organise 1961 American Indian Chicago Conf. v. successful
56 reservations turned into 'redevelopment areas'
LBJ Indian Resources Development Act of 1967
1966 policy of compulsory Termination abandoned
NIYC more 'red power' - 1969 group occupied Alcatraz - less successful also targeted by COINTELPRO
3 13-18 (15 marks D – 18 marks C)
• Good focus on the question though in places this may not be sustained
• Well deployed facts though some of the work may just describe events rather than analyse the question
• Factual material used may not be in depth or very detailed
• Writing fairly well organised

5 25-30(A grade)
• Response analytical – develops its own argument and considers different interpretations
• High level of understanding of all the key issues relevant to the question shown throughout
• Supported by well deployed and detailed factual material throughout
• Excellently structured

No time for waffling narrative or bad organisation
which doesn't go anywhere
Decide on and plan your focus (factors)
Your argument
Intro CFA (context, factors, argument)
Then Everything - most important PEE
(Point and explanation) should directly related to the question and significantly support your argument
Combined a number of subcultures in a desire to
1) End US participation in Vietnam
2) Radically challenge structure of American society
Prominent SDS Students for Democratic Society (had influence among middle class in Universities)
April 1965 SDS first mass anti-war rally in Washington DC - 20,000 attended
Formed Vietnam Day Committee (VDC) to organise further protests
Encouraged burning of draft cards
SDS membership rose 1,500 1965 to 30,000 in 1967
Impact all v. debatable but did weaken govt. position and Nixon would tackle this more effectively but ultimately by promising withdrawal
So in a sense intellectual challenge to govt. policy successful
2) Much less successful at transforming society
Isolated MC (antipathy from 'silent majority) - tended to disperse into different countercultures and had bad media with extremes of communes i.e. Charles Manson
Also targeted by COINTELPRO
Ultimately like more successful Black Power Challenge there was no revolution in American Society
C - Growth of countercultures linked to failings/successes of moderate civil rights movement and the atmosphere of the Vietnam War and Populuxe
F - New Left, women, Native American, Hispanic
A - was no revolution in society and so status quo remains but there was significant political and some instances economic gains for hitherto invisible minority and persecuted groups.
P - Native Americans did not seek to change the status quo but to overturn injustices in their own position and they did succeed in making positive changes in the 1960s.
E - NCAI v. successful in collaborating with Uni of Chicago to raise profile of problems through American Indian Conference. Successful in interacting with JFK and Johnson government and benefited from governments decision to officially overturn the much hated 'compulsory termination' policy in 1966. Red Power movement also developed through NIYC who held high profile occupation of Alcatraz in 1969.
Explanation - Though did not end all economic and social problems on the reservations they did succeed at constructing a positive dialogue with government through their organisations and in achieving their main aim in overturning Termination. They also begun to benefit from more recognition of their problems from central government so years were positive.
Point - Although less high-profile and less successful than the African American struggle for civil rights Hispanic Americans did begin to challenge the injustices that faced them and did achieve the beginnings of progress in their struggle for CR.
Evidence - Organisation of NFWA to tackle problems of agricultural poverty under popular leadership of Cesar Chavez. Organised La Huelga 5 year strike which involved 10,000 agricultural workers. Alongside strategies borrowed from CR movement i.e. Peregrinacion in which protestors marched 340miles to to offices of the Governor of California and Chavez's 25 day fast in 1968. Ultimately a number of successes including raised wages for grape workers and most importantly 1975 California Agricultural Labour Relations Act.
Explanation - Through lower profile and divisions in the movement changes is slower but the existence of change is nonetheless significant.

P - New Left were able to exert some influence in forcing the US government to retreat in Vietnam but were overall not successful in challenging the status quo.
E - The Students for Democratic Society was the most influential group of the 'new left' and organised effectively in universities to oppose the Vietnam War. In April 1965 they led the first mass anti-Vietnam War rally in Washington in which 20,000 attended. They also formed the Vietnam Day Committee (VDC) to organise a campaign of resistance to the Vietnam War and as a result the membership of the SDS rose from 1,500 in 1965 to 30,000 in 1967.
Ex - Ultimately the New Left did pose a significant intellectual challenge to the US presence in Vietnam as part of a wider revisionist historiography. Their presence was felt beyond their numbers as they organised in the high profile middle class universities and actively courted media attention and as part of what Nixon characterised as a noisy minority did have an influence on government policy in Vietnam. However, their challenge to the status quo was never seriously damaging as their influence was confined to small middle class enclaves.
P - The second wave of feminism which found strong political support in America was able to promote the position of women in US society although failed in the radical change some of its members desired.
E - The National Organisation of Women was founded in 1966 by influential feminist Betty Friedan and sought to bring women into 'full participation in society.' They were able to effectively lobby government for change and as a result Johnson signed Executive Order 11375 outlawing sexual discrimination in the workplace. In challenging segregation in the courts Lorena Weeks, with the support of NOW, was able to win a significant precedent in defeating the Southern Bell Telephone COmpany in 1971. The feminist movement also sought to challenge the status quo more fundamentally by addressing female identity in society and the more radical works of feminists like Ti Grace Atkinson tried to reject a patriachal society.
E - Ultimately, the success of the women's movement was limited and the pay gap in fact was larger in 1969 than in 1960. However, in raising the issues they had wom significant precedents which would help them in future struggles. They were, like the other groups, unable to really challenge the status quo of society.
1941-1945 - TP WWII
1945-1954 Seeds of Change
'Golden Years' of NAACP - organised (successful) challenge to Jim Crow with support from Supreme Court and many white liberal politicians (Truman) + some pioneering work on direct action/protest
1955 Major TP
MBB - begins PP movement

1955-1963 High Point PP
Movement in South mobilises grassroots campaigners to get successful de facto end to segregation and some prominent media + de jure support - movement united behind PP
1963-1968 - PP challenged?
Emergence of alternatives to PP - PP moves toward challenge to socio-economic inequality and loses much of its traditional white and moderate support
1963 TP March on Washington
1945 Truman becomes President
1946 Morgan vs Virginia
1947 To Secure these Rights
1948 Truman re-elected
1954 Brown vs Board
1955-56 MBB
1957 Little Rock
1952 Election - IKE wins
1960 Greensboro Sit-ins
1961 Freedom Rides
61-62 - Albany Movement
1963 Birmingham + MOW
1960 Election - JFK
1963 JFK shot - LBJ
1964 CR Act
MFS - 1964
1965 - Selma
1965 Voting Rights Act
1966 Chicago Campaign
1968 PPC + MLK shot
To what extent was PP responsible for the successes of the CR movement in the years 1955-1968?
1. PP Responsible?
2. Federal Government and Supreme Court Responsible (political elites)
3. Media Responsible?
4. Black Power Responsible
Answer - PP is responsible for the ending of de jure and de facto segregation through mobilising support of campaigners, media and Presidents - though less successful in tackling socio-economic causes of inequality and psychological legacy of JC
1955 MBB - Rosa Parks - 1Dec 1955 to 20Dec 1956 - 381 days ends in victory supported by Browder vs Gayle + city authorities desegregating buses + Facilitates rise of MLK and formation of SCLC - mobilisation of grassroots support around Churches in the form of non-violent peaceful protest
1957 Little Rock - organised by NAACP and after long struggle IKE forced to intervene against Faubus (+ ends up passing CR Act 1957) - desegregation of education still slow but going ahead
1960 Greensboro Sit-ins - represent radicalisation as it is not just removing patronage but placing protesters in way of segregationists + gets students involved SNCC
1963 Birmingham Major Success following Bull Connor's attack on young demonstrators - JFK 'sickened' - leads on to 'free by 1963' March on Washington and 1964 CR Act (comprehensive ending segregation)
MFS and Selma 64 + 65 force Voting Rights Act
HOWEVER - Only successful when challenging segregation and when gets support of liberal media and liberal politicians - campaigns after 1963 in North much less successful - nonetheless responsible for the ending of segregation
- Supreme Court much more supportive of movement - Brown II1955 (Early Warren)
- Eisenhower unsupportive but forced to intervene for political reasons 1957 + 1960 CR ACT
- JFK supports CR Act and MLK
- LBJ passes CR Act and Voting Rights Act
However - only supportive because PP made it politically necessary to do so by raising profile (Cold War) and raising political power of black community
+ Ike not supportive + JFK not supportive (Freedom Rides) and only does symbolic change until forced into action because Birmingham major embarrassment in CW) + Not supportive of campaigns which tackle socio-economic inequality COINTELPRO
- March on Washington + Birmingham
- Media integral in successes - failure in Albany 61-62 due to Police Chief Laurie Pritchett learning lessons

- Analayis similar re. government and elites - media turn against 'violent' CR movement
- Tackling Socio-economic inequality and psychological impact of racism
- Major critique of 20th C Uncle Tom from MX and major critique of passive nature of PP and its failings
- Successes re Patrol the Pigs, Survival Programmes+ cultural successes and self-confidence
- However - argument that BP actually made PP more effective because it forced Presidents to work with the 'nice' side of the movement
- Successes of BP much more localised
- Argument that BP split movement and lost support of elites
How far were the forces opposed to civil rights responsible for the failures of the civil rights movement in the 1960s?
White Segregationists
Bull Connor - Birmingham + Laurie Pritchett in Albany
Violence in Freedom Rides + Bham + Selma
MFDP - Mississippi
Chicago Movement violence
1962 Meredith vs George Wallace
If anything their violence is counterproductive and forces elites into support for movement i.e. Bham and CR Act
Liberal Elites (Media + Gment)
Although support sometimes slow in coming obv general support for PP movement under MLK before 1963
However there is a significant shift away from porting movement because
- Vietnam War
- Radicalisation of the movement
By late 1960s they become enemies of the movement (COINTELPRO!) - this is much more significant as is shown by their fierce attack on the movement
Supporters of CR - Black Power
Too radical etc etc
However can point out significant successes and how the PP movement in general moves toward tackling the same kind of goals and hence MLK and MX become much closer in outlook by 1965
Supporters of CR - PP
Divisions in movement
- personality clashes i.e. 1966 Meredith March
MLKs less successful final campaigns
- Movement radicalises and becomes more divided (goals, methods, social class)
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