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Transcript of Refraction
When waves of light pass into a medium of high index of refraction, the waves slow down.
If the waves strike the surface at an angle, part of the wave will slow down while the portion outside will continue to move at full speed. This causes the wave to bend like this.
If the wave passes into a medium of lower index of refraction, the waves speeds up.
A general rule:
When light strikes a surface at an angle and crosses into a higher index of refraction, it bends towards the normal. When light strikes a surface at an angle and crosses into a lower index of refraction, it does the opposite and bends away from the normal. lets imagine two prisms stacked with a square piece of glass like so: if light strikes a piece of glass perpendicular to the surface, no refraction occurs. If the light strikes at an angle, the ray will bend. Notice that the top and bottom rays refract through the prisms, and the ray in the middle does not refract. All three rays meet at a common point. This is called the Focal Point If we gradually curve the sides of these polygons, we have a lens. There are types of lenses: Converging Lens:The light rays refract and come together at the focal point. Diverging Lens:The light rays refract and spread out. Can you predict the paths of these two light rays? Lenses and Refraction So... Now Normal Perpendicular to the surface. Object Real Image Object Vitual Image Object Virtual Image Focal Point Focal Point Focal Point
Or virtual images when the object is closer than the focal length. Focal Length Diverging lenses can only produce smaller virtual images. 2 Converging lenses can produce either real images like this when the object is further than the focal length