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Transcript of smarine
technology and applications
TAT-n, PTAT, CANTAT-3, Columbus, Gemini, AC-1, TPC-n, FLAG, SEA-ME-WE, etc…
International Cable Protection Committee
Established in 1958 in UK; now 122 members representing 60+ countries.
Define the minimum standards for cable route planning, installation, operation, maintenance and protection.
Exchange of technical, environmental and legal information.
Address international law and environmental issues.
Promoting awareness of the strategic, economic and social benefits of submarine cables.
Facilitating communication between the members and suppliers.
Serve the common interest of the ICPC’s members.
Standards provide an international agreements & consensus
IEEE 1120: IEEE Guide for the Planning, Design, Installation, and Repair of Submarine Power Cable Systems
ITU-T (G.971-G.978): Digital sections and digital line system – Optical fiber submarine cable systems
IEC 60840/60502: Testing method and requirement for power cables
IEC 60794: FO Generic Specification and testing (Crush, Impact, flexing, Kink, Bend, water penetration, etc)
International Cable Protection Committee (ICPC) guidelines
Windmill Farms “Renewable Energy”
Started in 1885, traditional Dutch design
Up to 8,545 Megawatts in 2008, USA
Electricity produced depend on:
Wind turbine arrangement
COE = (FCR x ICC) + AOE
ICC ≡ Initial Capital Cost
FCR ≡ Fixed Charge Rate ($/yr)
AOE ≡ Annual Operating Expenses
AEP ≡ Annual Energy Production
Wind speed and turbines formation
Location, Height, Distance, etc
Global demand for Oil and Gas is increasing
High reliability and low-maintenance for continuous production.
Safety and environmental friendly are of great importance
New Technologies: I-field, smart wells
- Reduce costs
- Improve efficiency
Oil & Gas Applications
Moving the control from platforms to onshore (smart wells)
Require good expertise in deep water installation
Designed for the deep
3 type of cables:
Composite (FO + power)
Umbilical (FO + power + tubes)
Comply with IEC-60840
Filling compounds to prevent water from getting into cable
Strength membrane: mechanical strength (Armoring)
Check local government agencies for permitting.
Avoid Ship route
Land permit/Right of the way
Site and route survey
Maximize cable safety
Adequate cable protection
Repeaterless vs. Repeater
Physical layer and transport layer
Achieve low-latency networks (time sensitive applications)
Minimizing service disruption time
Deep water or shallow water
IT’S BETTER TO BE SAFE THAN SORRY
1850 International Telegraph
1858 Trans-Atlantic TAT 1
1876 Telephone was invented
1884 Telephone cable
(San Francisco - Oakland)
1958 International Cable
1980 Optical Submarine
1986 Fiber Optics cable
Atlantic link (TAT-8)
1997 FLAG 28000KM
Pairs of fibers…More fibers per cable
Location of FO in the cable
Armor: single or double
Repeater: Factory splicing, undersea repeaters.
More flexible cables
Cost depend on:
Types of cable and protection employed
Burial depth required
Number of shore landings and branching units
Number of cable and pipeline crossings
Distance of lay from cable factory
Cable Burial = Protection
More protection to the cable against ship anchors and fishing activities
Prevent movement of the cables
Recommended for shallow water
Using Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV)
Burial depth specifications depend on the soil type
Trench cut by water jet
Recommended for shallow water and near shore (last mile)
Ship speed varies during installation
Laying these cables is a big task
Increased weight, large diameter cables require large cable handling machines and cranes.
Special and large vessels (very expensive)
Use of ROV: monitor subsea installations
Deck loading capacity
Repairing the cables can take weeks
Wind speed and weather conditions
Surface laid installation
Myth: Satellites are the main backbone for today’s Internet connectivity.
Cost is dependent on degree of complexity and number of fiber pairs
Cable or pipeline crossings
Pre-lay and post lay concrete mattresses
Rock dumping on mattress edges
High density polyethylene (HDPE) half-shell moldings fastened around the cable
Stainless steel tubes
May include electrical and fiber cables.
Used for injection hydraulic liquids and chemicals to the subsea wells
There are no off-the-shelf umbilical cables
Double layer of steel armor for additional protection or to add weight
Use trenching for extra protection
Control subsea structures
Extend service life of oil wells
Connect submarine cable to land
All components shall be corrosion proof.
Comply with Safety standards
Terminating on switchgear or/and underground cable.
Recommend heat-shrinkable splice due to:
Safety; close proximity to power cables in the junction box.
Harsh weather conditions
On-shore trenching to protect the cable
2006 Earthquake in Taiwan (seven out of nine submarine cables damaged)
2008- Mediterranean undersea cable failed four times
Operation & Maintenance
Improve Reliability and Availability.
Repair can be expensive and cumbersome:
Re-splicing the cable
Re-testing the cable
Inspection the cable periodically to check for wear and irregularities
Maintain and manage records of facilities: landing area, cable routing, burial depth, and type of cable, etc…
Operate on submarine cable or landing station.
Stand-by Maintenance: Always on stand-by, ready to deploy at any moment when a failure occurs.
On-call Maintenance: Failure recovery team is assembled each time a failure occurs.
More bandwidth demand = More Submarine cables
Improve FO characteristics:
Signal to noise ratio (OSNR)
Forward Error Correction (FEC)
Reduce cable weight and volume
Improve installation vessels (Swiss knife)/ROV
Deep sea (marine) exploration (Google)
Khalid S. Al-Ghamdi
Oil Platform Installation
Motions of platform = cable stress
J-tube to hosts the cable to limit cable movements
Grout bags/concrete mattresses used:
Crossover support and separation for Pipelines and other structure
Added weight and stabilization
Health Safety Environment Officer;
Rig Move Master;
Cable failure = High cost restoration and repair
Khalid S. Al-Ghamdi