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Ancient Rome: Republic to Empire
Transcript of Ancient Rome: Republic to Empire
founded in 753 B.C. after Romans overthrew Etruscans
-Legislative Branch: in charge of making laws
-Senate: group of 300 advisors to Roman leaders (senators=Patricians, assembly members=Plebians)
-Judicial Branch: ran courts with 8 judges
-Executive Branch: carried out the laws
-Two Consuls lead the executive branch
How is this related to what you know about U.S. government?
-By 275 B.C. Rome had conquered the entire Italian Peninsula
-conquered people could be Roman citizens
-could manage themselves
-had to pay taxes, and send soldiers to Roman army
-264 B.C.-146 B.C.: Punic Wars
-3 different wars against Carthage
-after 3rd war, Rome captured/destroyed Carthage
expanded from Spain to Greece
-Soldiers came back wealthy, and bought large farms w/slaves
-small farms couldn't keep up and lost their land
-gap between rich and poor grew wider=conflict between social classes
Why were the Punic Wars significant to Roman expansion?
-65 B.C. : elected as a public official
-focused on providing entertainment=very popular w/common citizens
-59 B.C.: elected to position of Senior Consul, and governed Gaul, focusing on military
-Pompey (ruler @ the time), did not like Caesar, ordered him to step down
-Caesar refused and started a civil war
-Elected Consul again, reformed government
- expanded Senate so citizens had bigger voice
- Julian Calendar
-44 B.C.: was elected "dictator for life",
-stabbed to death on March 15 of that year
Why was Julius Caesar important, and how did the Ancient Roman civilization change during this time?
-27 B.C.: Caesar's nephew, Augustus, becomes ruler
-First real emperor of Rome
-started civil service
-Pax Romana: 200 years of peace
-Army grew to biggest size,guarded borders, built roads
-Farming and trade
What was the Pax Romana, and how did it contribute to the strength of the Roman Empire?
Rome as a Republic
-Republic: A government in which people elect their leaders
-Early life for Romans: farmers who owned land could also be in military. They became wealthy and this caused a gap in social classes, which would later cause divisions in Roman government.
-Patricians: members of wealthy landowner class that held highest positions in the government
-Plebians: common farmers who could not hold important government positions
-Plebians resented Patricians, until Patricians created the 12 Tables (laws that set up basic rights for all Roman citizens)
How did social class influence Roman Society?