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The long term effects of exercise

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Sam Nutt

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of The long term effects of exercise

From exercise the effects of the muscluloskeletal system are:
-increase in mitochondria
-muscle and ligaments become stronger
-there is an increase in the myoglobin
-enzymes become more concentrated

Effects on the musculoskeletal system
The increase in the mitochondria this means that there will be an increase in the amount of energy that is produced, this means that the person can then go on for longer, this is because there is an increase in the amount of ATP that is produced, because there is an increased number of mitochondria.
Increased mitochondria
There is an increase of myglobin after long term exercise, this means that there can be more oxygen can be stored in the skeletal muscles, this means that oxygen can be passed to the mitochondria quickly therefore the rate at which energy and ATP is produced increases because there isnt far for it to travel.
- there a 2 types of hypertrophy:
Sarcoplasmic- this sort of hypertrophy is focused on increasing the muscle size, however most is focused on the liquid inside the muscles instead of the muscle tissue, the muscles fill up with sarcoplamic fluid which expands the size of the cells in the muscles, this doesn't give your more strength.
Myofibrillar- this hypertrophy is the one that focuses on increasing the muscle mass, this gives you more strength because of the increase in muscle mass.
The increase in the myoglobin will mean that there will be more energy produced, also is will mean that the athletes strength will increase and they will have a better production of ATP or energy because there are more reactions going on.

There is an increase in the enzymes activity, because there has been an increase in the amount of myoglobin and mitochondria, the increase in mitochondria means that there is an increase in the metabolism rate, this means the more food can be digested and quicker, this means more energy can be produced or obtained via the increase in the digestion.
Increased enzymes
Because of long term exercise these section of the cardiovascular system are affected:
cardiac hypertrophy
Increase stroke volume
Decreased resting heart rate
Increased blood volume
Reduction in resting blood pressure

This is thickening and strengthening of the muscles in the heart, which results in a decrease of the size of the chamber in the heart, this happens mainly on the left side of the heart, because this side has to pump blood to the rest of the body, this means that more oxygen can get to the working muscles and can get there at higher rate.
Cardiac hypertrophy
Your resting heart rate will decrease due to your muscles in you heart getting bigger and stronger, this means that one pump of the heart will pump more blood around you body, therefore less contraction are need to pump a lot of blood, therefore there are a decreased number of beats per minute
Decreased resting heart rate
There is an increased volume because there is a greater need for oxygen around the body, this then means that amount of oxygen that gets to the muscles increases, it also means that white blood cells will increase in number and will be able to treat wounds and cuts quicker.
Increased blood volume
From long term energy there is:
Increase in aerobic and anaerobic enzymes.
Increase of fats as an energy source.
Energy systems
Because there is an increase in mitochondria this means that there is an increase in both aerobic and anaerobic enzymes, this then means that there will be an increase in both aerobic energy and anaerobic energy, this is do to the fact that the enzymes can break down more ATP to produce energy, if the athlete was a sprinter then they would focus on increasing their anaerobic enzymes, where as if they were a sprinter they would focus on increasing their aerobic enzymes which will allow them to go on for a long amount of time.
Increase in aerobic and anaerobic enzymes
Fat is usually used as stores for energy that is needed over a short period, but as glycogen stores of energy depletes during long periods of exercise fat stores are used a lot more, athletes that are more trained will be able to use fat stores more and with better effectiveness, due to the continuous long periods of exercise the fat stores will begin to increase therefore more energy will be able to be produced and the athlete will be able to go on for long periods of time.
Increase of fats as energy stores
The long term effects of exercise
In this prezi I'm going to say about what the long term effects are on your body from exercising, and how they are good to your general health.
Muscle and ligaments become stronger
The ligaments and tendons become stronger because they are constantly being used therefor they will need to adapt and become stronger to deal with the amount of constant pressure they are under, therefore there is a less likely chance of you getting injured.
Increase in synovial fluid
The synovial fluid helps with the joints because it keeps the lubricated and makes sure that the cartilage doesn't wear away, it also increase the range of movement that can be done by the joint, the increase in the exercise means that there has to be more synovial fluid produced because there is more movement.
Increased amount of cartilage
The cartilage is found at the end of bones where there is a joint, it is used to stop there being any bone rubbing on bone, so there is no where to the bones and reducing the amount of movement you can do, it also holds the bone together to make sure that the risk of dislocation is reduced, after the long term exercise the thickness of the cartilage will increase this means that the athlete can do more exercise and they will have a reduced risk of them dislocating that joint.
Increase bone density and calcium stores
If there is increased stress or pressure on the bones then cells called osteoblasts will make our bones stronger and denser, this means that you are able to do more weight exercise and put more stress on the bone. During exercise your body will use calcium and increase the calcium levels, because it is used to help keep the heart, muscles and nervous systems functioning, it also can be used in recovery to help the bones to recover from any really strenuous our heavy weight, if you don't get enough calcium then you may be at risk of osteoporosis and continuously have breaks in you bones, and will not to be able to to compete in sports because of the risk
Increase stroke volume
The stroke volume increases during exercise because the body will need more oxygen to be pumped around the body in one beat, it will also depend on what type of exercise you are doing, if you are jogging then it will increase you stroke volume from 50ml to 120ml, where as an olympic runners stroke volume will increase to 200ml.
Capillarisation is where there is muscle growth due to the blood vessels surrounding the muscle increase in number, this helps the recovery process because the muscle has more oxygen feeding into it which allows it to recover quicker, it means that the muscles won't tire aa quickly as they normally would
Lower resting blood pressure
There is a reduction in the resting blood pressure because there is a higher concentration of oxygen in the blood therefore less blood is needed to be pumped around the body, so there is a reduction in the pressure.
The greater the mitochondria the greater the amount of oxygen synthesized, meaning that less oxygen is needed in the body, because of the increased of efficiency of making ATP and energy.
The increase in enzymes means that there is a increase in the rate at which ATP and oxygen is broken down, this means that there is a increase in the amount of energy that is produced.
This will allow the athlete to be able to go on for longer, and will allow the athlete to do an explosive bit of speed or power if needed
Respiratory system
Due to long term exercise the following increase:

Vital capacity
Minute ventilation
Strength of respiratory muscles
Oxygen diffusion rate

Vital capacity
Vital capacity is the amount or volume of air that is exhaled from the lungs for the duration of one breath, this allows the body to get rid of carbon dioxide that is in the body, if there is a high vital capacity then there is going to be an increased in the amount of air inhaled because of the release of pressure in the lungs, it is important that the vital capacity increases because this means that the working muscles can get a sufficient amount of oxygen to keep them going, it will also mean that the person does tire as easily because his muscles tire less easily, it also means they will have a high lactic level, which is the level at which your muscles start to tire and then the body starts to tire and shut down.
The increase in synovial fluid means that there is a less risk of you getting something like osteoarthritis which means that you physical activity levels will be decreased because of the wearing down of the bones, which will cause pain when you move, this is because there will be no cartilage on the bones and it will be bone wearing against bone, this is because there is no lubrication on the bones which will also restrict the amount of movement that you can do.
Minute ventilation
Minute ventilation is the amount air that can be exhaled from the lings in one minute, the normal rate of minute ventilation is 5-10 litres per minute, this is key because the more air that is exhaled per minute means that there is a release in the pressure so more air and oxygen can be inhaled because of the release in pressure, this means that there is more oxygen for the muscles to use and there is a constant supply of oxygen so there is not a build up of an oxygen debt allowing you to recover quicker after your exercise, so you can do more physical activity.
Strength of respiratory muscles
The strength of the respiration muscles increase because they are under constant pressure and are constantly working during long term exercise, this then causes them to increase in size because they are constantly is use and need to adapt to be able to go on for longer and to be able to do more contractions frequently, the muscles that are involved in the respiration system are the intercostal muscles which help the lungs to expand and contract, the diaphragm decreases and increases the amount of volume of in the lungs when it contracts and relaxes, these are the muscles that increase in strength and size due to long term exercise
Oxygen diffusion rate
The oxygen diffusion rate will increase because the amount of oxygen intake is increased so the amount of oxygen that is diffused into the blood will also be increased, this also means that the amount of carbon dioxide that is diffused out of the body also increases, this means that there is a sufficient amount of oxygen in your body so that you can carry on doing that exercise, this also allows you to not build up as much of a oxygen debt after you have done your exercise.
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