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Transcript of ICZM Presentation
Fiji Islands Locally Managed Marine Areas Network (FLMMA)
Partnership of local communities, NGOs and government agencies
Alifereti, T. (2007). Scaling-up networks of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) to island wide ecosystem
management while decentralising the effort of Fiji LMMA network and its implementation from national to provincial levels." A Kadavu Yaubula Management Support Team (KYMST). [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.lmmanetwork.dreamhosters.com/files/tawake_2007_scaling_up.pdf [Accessed 10 May 2014].
Govan, H., Aalbersberg, W., Tawake, A., and Parks, J. (2008). Locally-Managed Marine Areas: A guide for
practitioners. The Locally-Managed Marine Area Network. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.lmmanetwork.org/files/lmmaguide.pdf [Accessed 10 May 2014].
Govan, H., Jupiter, S. and Comley, J. (2012). Recognition and Support of ICCAs in Fiji. Kothari, A. with Corrigan, C.,
Jonas, H., Neumann, A., and Shrumm, H.(eds). CBD Secretariat Technical Series No. 64.
Govan, H., Tawake, A., Korovulavula, I. and Tawakelevu, S. (2009). Summary analysis of site support costs for Fiji
Locally Managed Marine Area (FLMMA)-Institute of Applied Sciences (USP) sites. IAS Technical Report, 2.
The Locally-Managed Marine Area (LMMA) Network. (2004). Learning Framework. [ONLINE]. Available at:
www.lmmanetwork.org [Accessed 10 May 2014].
GVI (Global Vision International). (2013). GVI Marine Conservation and Community Development Program Fiji.
[ONLINE]. Available at: http://gvifiji.blogspot.co.uk [Accessed 10 May 2014].
Mills, M., Jupiter, S. D., Pressey, R. L., Ban, N. C. and Comley, J. (2011). Incorporating Effectiveness of
Community‐Based Management in a National Marine Gap Analysis for Fiji. Conservation Biology, 25(6), 1155-1164.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2012). Fiji Locally-Managed Marine Area Network, Fiji.
Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY
Veitayaki, J. (2000). Fisheries resource-use culture in Fiji and its implications. Culture and sustainable
development in the Pacific, 116-130.
Verdone, M. and Seidl, A. (2012). Fishing and Tourism in the Fijian Economy. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 20 pp.
William, A., Tawake, A. and Parras, T. (2005). Village by village: recovering Fiji's coastal fisheries. Institute of
Applied Sciences, University of the South Pacific.
WWF (2014). Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). [ONLINE]. Available at: http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/
wwf_offices/fiji_islands/our_work/protected_areas/ [Accessed 10 May 2014].
Archipelagic state of some
located in the South Pacific
Marine and coastal ecosystems provide significant
benefits to its people
, remain heavily reliant on traditional, subsistence livelihoods
Marine resources to meet
daily protein needs
Long practiced traditional management systems: seasonal bans and temporary no-take areas that can be adapted for modern use
Pre-Intergrated Coastal Zone Management Strategies
An area of sea where customary native fishing rights exist
When the chief of a village dies, a portion of the community’s fishing ground is set aside as no-take, opened after 100 days
Income per year around 4% of GDP. Most fishers’ are subsistence and are mainly hand-to-mouth
Income per year up to 67% of GDP
Sperm whale (
Bumphead parrotfish (
Humphead wrasse (
Leatherback sea turtle (
Too many monetary obligations
Few sources of income
Commerce and development
Climate change: habitat degredation
As of 2009
10,745 sq. km
(approx. 10% of territorial waters)
management tools (MPAs)
: establishing Navakavu LMMA <US$ 12,000 over five years and profits were about US$ 37,800 in benefits to the community.
Return of crab
after a 50-year absence.
Red spotted box crab (
Qoliqoli Bill 2006
(Verdone and Seidl, 2012)
Inconsistent support from government
Ownership of "qoliqoli"
Relies on volunteers
Average 43% increase across three villages
Kaikoso clam (
Photos: C. Oliver