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Copy of principles of language learning and teaching - chapter 8
Transcript of Copy of principles of language learning and teaching - chapter 8
----> new analyzing method
-----> become main stream in linguistic research An approach to linguistic research that relies on computer analyses of language. Corpus can be looked at in terms of varieties of language, dialects, styles, and registers. In written form, corpora can be classified as: academic
literary prose In speech, corpora can be classifed into conversations of many kinds: theater/television scripts
classroom language "A collection of texts - written, transcribed speech, or both - that is stored in electronic form and analyzed with the help of computer softwear programs" Idenitify word frequencies and co-occurrences
Grammatical patterns can also be identified.
On teaching foreign language, the benefits will continue to be explored as this field grows. Benefits of Corpus Linguistics: Disadvantages of Corpus Linguistics: Frequency may not mean highly useful in a language learner's progress to proficiency
May not represent the reality of English encountered by learners in expanding circles.
Can be the result of their intuitive decisions or even their biases.
Conclusion: Despite these drawbacks, CL holds promise for enlightening not only our language teaching methodology, but also for understanding the nature of linguistics discourse in general. What is Corpus? The Contrastive Rhetoric (CR)
---> an another measurement of analysis in discourse. It is the assumption(가정) that language accurs not in isolated grammartic(syntactic) structures but rather in naturally occurring speaches(discourses), whether spoken or written, although admittedly CR has focused almost exclusively on written varieties. cross-cultural aspects of writing, and in particular the difficulties learners may experience in acquiring conventions of writing in a second language. Difficulties we have in CR: 1. Conventions for writing that are truly language specific (every language has genres of writing, an academic enre, disciplines vary, different saying).
2. Writing contexts and specific conventions within subgroups of genres may prove to be far more important for learners to attend to than a possible contrasting native language convention.
3. Second language writer's task is to follow certain conventional models - can not encourages writers to develop their own voice. important in conveying & interpreting meaning.
comparatively new branch of study in the area of linguistics. Pargmatics's roll: Difficulty the difficulty of S & P IN L2 mainly because of subtle cross-cultural differential. Grammatical knowledge (simple compare to pragmatic constraints)
Pragmatic conventions from a learner's first language can transfer both positively and negatively.
Apologizing, complimenting, thanking, face-saving conventions, and conversational cooperation strategies often prove to be difficult for second language learners to acquire.
Cooperation principles are especially difficult to master. Difficulties overall in S & P for L2: CHAPTER 8 Current constructivist positions generally prefer to view gender as one of many factors that enter into communication:
the speaker, the setting, the culture context, and the interactions of ethnicity, class, gender, power, sexual orientation, and a wide array of other social phenomena.
The English language reflects the power
that men have historically held in many
areas of life. (1) Language effected by one's sex on both production and reception. <Among American English speaker>
Women: use language expresses more uncertainty than man and use more polite form
Man: interrput more than woman and to use stronger expletives.
Definitions of Contrastive Rhetoric: Robert Kaplan(1966) has found out : Robert Kaplan give a conclusion: the writing conventions of a language may in some ways define a culture. The essay has looked through in writing organaization of English, Russian and Semitic. The Research Result: English ---> depicted through a straight line from one point to another!
Semitic Language ---> write with a jagged set of lines. Oriental Language ---> write through a spiral A research: eg: Good to know ---- what is about Rhetoric (수사학): Define as an organized, consistent, coherent way of talking about practical discourse in any of its forms or modes. Language functions
Contrastive rhetoric the importance of Pragmatics in conveying and interpreting meaning. Effects of Pragmatic: Constraints on language comprehension and production.
context on strings of linguistic events. [Phone rings, a 10-year-old child pick up the phone] stefanie: Hello
Voice: Hi, Stef, is your Mum there?
Stefanie: Just a moment. [cups the phone and yells] Mom!Phone!
Mom: [from upstairs] I'm in the tub!
Stefanie: [returing to the phone] She can't talk now. Wanna leave
Voice: Uh, [pause] I'll call back later. Bye. This is what we mean Pragmatic Considerations which help us connect the ambiguous relations among 3 people in above situation! What we already know eg: What the Sociopragmatics and Pragmalinguistic brought to us when we learn a second language? What is Sociopragmatics? What is Pragmalinguistics? Pragmalinguistics, combining knowledge of linguistics and civilization, is a field under development within the realm of applied linguistics. It is concerned with the pragmatism of speech acts, which calls for knowledge of the relation between one linguistic element and the persons producing, using, and receiving it during the communicative situation. Pragmalinguistics attempts to develop a systematic inventory of all that belongs to communicative competence. Communicative competence includes not only grammar but also the way of living and the view of life specific to the competent speaker, since he needs them to make use of his ability to perform speech acts. identified as important components of communicative competence in the workplace kasper and Roever(2005), Kasper and Rose(2002), Bardovi-Harlig(1999a),
Scollon and Scollon(1995),
Kasper and Blum-Kulka(1993),
Holmes and Brown(1987) point out eg: American: What an unusual necklace. It's beautiful!
Samoan: Please take it. (Holmes & Brown,1987,p.526) American teacher: Would you like to read?
Russian student: No, I would not. (Harlow,1990,p.328) misunderstood the illocutionary fore Point 1. (2) Differences between the way males and females speak have been noted for some times now Point 2. Apart from English speaking culture, in other languages no research on Language and Gender. eg: Carib Indians (in the Lesser Antilles): Males and females must use entirely different gender marking for abstract nons.
Japan: Women's and Men's language is differentiated by formal variants, intonation patterns, and nonverbal expression. Point 3. Conclusion: Before---------------- Now Stewardesses
Chairmen Flight attendants
The wife Women All above what we looked at today are subtleties that a second language learner must contend with.
09002092 Cui Jinglin Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics which has been developed in the late 1970's. The term "pragmatics' was invented by C.W. Morris in the 1938. Pragmatics can be define as the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker or writer and later interpreted by a listener or reader. It is a study of the meanings that a sentence has in a particular context in which it is uttered. Body postures and gestures are also important in understanding meaning. Pragmatics require people to make sense of people and what they have in their mind.