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South African Independence & Apartheid
Transcript of South African Independence & Apartheid
South African Independence
1970s - Resistance to apartheid increases. Organizing by churches and workers increased. Whites join blacks in demonstrations.
1970s - More than 3 million people are forcibly resettled into black “homelands” - lose citizenship.
1980s - People and governments around the world launch an international campaign to boycott South Africa.
End of Apartheid
Dutch East India Co. establishes colony at Cape Town in 1652.
British take Cape colony from Dutch in 1800's.
Dutch (Boers/Afrikaners) move inland & take lands from indigenous Xhosa people.
Afrikaners find diamonds & gold inland. Use land for resources and oppress native population.
South Africa becomes independent in 1910
Tension between British, Afrikaners and native Africans.
African National Congress forms in 1912 - political party that fights for African civil rights.
Native Land Act of 1913 - Prevented Africans from buying land except land given to them (7%)
The all-white Afrikaan National Party was founded in 1914.
1948 Afrikaner National Party came to power in S. Africa & introduce apartheid (legal segregation)
1950 The Population Registration Act is passed which classifies people into three racial groups:
Colored (mixed race or Asian)
1952 - Legislation passed that all Africans had to carry ID passes.
1950's involved in non violent, civil disobedience.
Issue the Freedom Charter in 1955
Nelson Mandela is a key leader
National Party bans the ANC
Mandela is jailed for life for involvement - Robben Island.
F.W. de Klerk is elected as President in 1989. Frees Mandela in 1990 and repeals the rest of the apartheid laws and calls for the drafting of a new constitution in 1991. (Peaceful)
1994 Elections are held. The United Nations sends observers to ensure the fairness.Nelson Mandel is elected with 63 percent of the vote.