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Establishing the New Nation

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Mr. Dickman

on 9 October 2018

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Transcript of Establishing the New Nation

A Confederation of States
State Governments
a document that sets out the laws and principles of a government
State Government Structure
Execute the Laws
Most had an upper and lower house
Bill of Rights
Lists freedoms and protections
All states had a governor except Pennsylvania
Pass Laws
Only Virginia
limited power of government
with a bill of rights
Eventually others followed Virginia
Freedom of religion
Freedom of the press
right to a trial by jury
Voting: white, male, 21
A Weak Federal Government
Congress could pass laws
State = 2/3 to ratify
Could not:
regulate trade
pass tax laws
no president
to carry out laws
no system of courts
Had to ask states for money
Land Dispute
Worried states would become too powerful
Virginia holds out
Jefferson and other leaders persuade Virginia
Creating a Republic
A Weak

Troubles for the New Nation
State Differences
claimed same land
wouldn't accept other state's money
Articles of Confederation did not provide a way to settle differences
Money Problems
U.S. had debt from the war
Central Government couldn't collect taxes
no way to pay debt
Congress printed money, but it had little value
Other Nations take advantage of weaknesses
refused to remove troops from the Ohio Valley
closed its port in New Orleans to American farmers
Organizing the Northwest Territory
land laws
Land Ordinance of 1785
Set up a system for surveying and settling the Northwest Territory
Each township = 36 sections
1 section = 1 sq mile or 640 acres
1 section cost $640
Northwest Ordinances
Setup a government for the territory
guaranteed basic rights and outlawed slavery there
divided into

separate territories
Provided a way for territories to become new states
A Farmer's Revolt
Economic Depression
a period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and unemployment rises
Shay's Rebellion
During Revolution:
-demand for farm products increased
-farmers borrowed money
After Revolution:
-demand decreased
-farmers lost money
-farmers could pay loans
state raised taxes, took farms from farmers who didn't pay taxes or loans
The Constitutional Convention
The Meeting Place
Some of the Nation's Greatest Gathered
Benjamin Franklin
Age 81
George Washington
James Madison
Alexander Hamilton
Many delegates were in their 20s and 30s
Their Mission
Revise the Articles of Confederation
We should keep this a secret.
I agree.
More than just a revision
They chose to write an entirely new constitution.
Two Proposed Plans
The Virginia Plan
The New Jersey Plan
Strong national government
Legislative Branch
Two Houses
Both: votes based on population
Large States = more votes
Executive Branch
Judicial Branch
Three Branches
Legislative Branch
One House
Each state = one vote
How will they decide
Southern states:

wanted slaves to be counted for population
but not taxation
Northern states:

wanted slaves
to be counted for taxation but
not population
3/5 Compromise:
settled the issue by counting
3/5ths of the slave population for both representation and taxation

3/5 Compromise

Created a
two-house legislature
with representation by
population in one house
equal representation
for each state in the
other house

The Great Compromise

House of Burgesses
Representative Government
Mayflower Compact
Established just and equal laws
Other experiences:
Second Continental Congress, the Articles of Confederation, and state governments

The American Experience
Magna Carta
Citizens have rights
Right to a trial by jury
English Bill of Rights
Elections should be held regularly
Allowed citizens to bear arms
Reaffirmed trial by jury
No person held in prison without first being charge in a specific crime

Origins of the Constitution

A More Perfect Union

John Locke:
Declared all people had the natural
right to life, liberty, and property
The government is an agreement between ruler and ruled.
If the ruler violates the natural rights, the people have
the right to rebel
Baron de Montesquieu
Three separate branches
Separation of Powers

The Enlightenment
Federal Power
Coin money
Declare war
Regulate trade
State Power
Regulate trade within own borders
Who can vote in state elections
Establish Schools and local governments
Shared Powers
Build roads and raise taxes
The Constitution was supreme law in disputes

Federal System (Federalism)
Judicial Branch
Supreme Court
Interprets the laws

Legislative Branch
Makes the laws

Executive Branch
Carries out laws

Separation of Powers
Declare acts of Congress unconstitutional

Declare acts of President unconstitutional

Can appoint judges

Can Remove President

Can Veto acts of Congress

Refuse to appoint judges

Judicial Branch
Supreme Court
Interprets the laws

Legislative Branch
Makes the laws

Executive Branch
Carries out laws

Checks and Balances
Ratifying the Constitution
The Constitution Goes to the Nation
9 out of 13 states
for the constitution to go into effect
Supporters of the Constitution
Argued the Articles = too much state power
The Constitution = national government can function
Federalist Papers = essays defending the Constitution
Opposed the Constitution
Argued Constitution = too strong national government, president too powerful
Chief Argument
We need a bill of rights!
Impossible to list all rights.
The States Vote to Ratify
By June 1788 Nine states vote to ratify.
Largest states yet to ratify
Decide to ratify July 1788
George Washington
John Adams
Vice President
59 Representatives
22 Senators
Congress First Order of Business
Amendment Process
Group Discovery Questions
1. Name
2 reasons
why states created a written

2. Why was it
difficult to write
all states would approve?

I'm happy!
Me too!
British Government
The division of power between national and state government
A way to check or control the other branches
Group/Partner Discovery
What was the purpose of each document?

The Magna Carta
The Mayflower Compact
The English Bill of Rights
Turn to a Partner
Discuss the following question:
What concerns about the Constitution might citizens have had in 1787 and 1788?
What is a
Page 188
More people now had the right to vote
What does this mean
What could the Federal Government do and not do?
Do you think this will be easy to accomplish?
Why or Why Not?
the delegates
Page 194
Two plans were proposed to structure the nation's government.
The Virginia Plan
The New Jersey Plan
Full transcript