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Water

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by

Richard French

on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of Water

H2O covers 70.9% of the earths surface.
It is present in liquid, solid, and gas.
It is known as the universal solvent.
Less than 0.3% of all water is freshwater.
Over 2.5 billion people lack the access to adequately sanized water.
The major components of proteins, DNA, and polysaccharides are disolved in water.
Adults are recommended to consume about 3.2 liters of water per day.
An ancient Egyption water purifying devise was found depicted in the tomb of Amenophis II at thebes. This iscription was dated to roughly 1450 BCE.
Ancient methods of purification include boiling, extended sunlight exposure, and filtering by cloth, sand or charcoal.
John Snow discovered that infectious diseases were easily spread through contaminated water in 1854.
Dr. Carl Darnall an army surgeon and chemist discovered the sanitation properties of anhydrous liquified chlorine.
All municipal water within the United States undergoes treatment in some form.
Aeration:
Removes suspended gasses.
Oxidizes iron and manganese
Decreases ammonia and sulfides
Kills many disease causing pathogens
Ferrous iron (Fe2+) is oxidized to ferric iron (Fe3+)
Ferric iron then forms iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3)
Manganese (Mn2+) is oxidized to (Mn4+)
Then forms manganese dioxide (MnO2).
Chemical oxidation is now used much more prevently
Coagulation-Flocculation-Sedimentation
Coagulation forms small "sticky" microfloc moleules.
Mixing creates larger floc molecules
Eventualy large pinfloc molecules form
Pinfloc settles into sludge in seddentary water.
Filtration
Slow sand filtration used beds of sand and gravel that formed biological films which entraped organic particulate.
Rapid media filtration uses pressurized water through media to physically trap particulate of varying sizes.
Distillation lacks trace minerals which benifit health.
Reverse osmosis filtration works by a pressure gradiant that only alows pure water to pass through the filtering membrane. RO water can filter out impurities ranging from .001 to .0001 microns.
Disinfection
UV light
Solar exposure
Hydrogen peroxide
Ozone
Chlorination
Chlorination
The same chemical used as in chemical warfare is the most commonly used additive to drinking water. 80% of water treatment plants use chlorine as of 2002.
Chlorine reaction to form hypochlorous acid
Chloramine formation:
Disinfection by products
Reaction mechanism of Tri halomethanes:
CH3COCH3 + HOCl -> CH3COCCl3
CH3COCCl3 + H2O -> CH3COOH + CHCl3
Reaction mechanism of Haloacetic acids:
CH3COCCl3 + HOCl -> CHCl2COCCl3
CHCl2COCHCl3 + H2O -> CHCl2COOH + CHCl3
What are you drinking?
My home's tap water ranged from 620 to 740 ppm. Recommended water consumption of tap water would lead to the consumption of roughly 75 grams of unknown particulate per month. After RO filtration the water ranged from 15-23 ppm.
Chemically Treated Water
By Richard Kenyon French
Al2(SO4)3 + 3 Ca(HCO3)2 ------------> 2 Al(OH)3 + 3CaSO4 + 6 CO2
Aluminum + Calcium gives Aluminum + Calcium + Carbon
Sulfate Bicarbonate Hydroxide Sulfate Dioxide
Aluminum sulfate (alum)
Common coagulants of flocculation

Fe2(SO4)3 + 3 Ca(HCO3)2 ------------> 2 Fe(OH)3 + 3CaSO4 + 6 CO2
Ferric + Calcium gives Ferric + Calcium + Carbon
Sulfate Bicarbonate Hydroxide Sulfate Dioxide
1 ppm of iron requires .14 ppm of dissolved oxygen
1 ppm of manganese requires .27 ppm of dissolved oxygen
Ferric sulfate
Citation:

John T. Hansen, Bruce M. Koeppen, (2002). Netter's Atlas of Human Physiology. Teterboro, N.J: Icon Learning Systems.

Food and Nutrition Board, comp. "Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate." The Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2004). Print.

Baker, M.N. and Taras, Michael J. 1981. “The Quest for Pure Water: The History of the Twentieth Century”, Volume 1 and 2. Denver: AWWA.

EPA (1987). "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations – Synthetic Organic Chemicals; Monitoring for Unregulated Contaminants; Final Rule." Federal Register, 52 FR 25690, 1987-07-08

"Coagulation and Flocculation Process Fundamentals." Www.mrwa.com. Minnesota Rural Water Association, 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <www.mrwa.com/OP-Coagulation.pdf>.

"Iron and Manganese Removal." Www.mrwa.com. Minnesota Rural Water Association, 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <www.mrwa.com/OP-Iron%20and%20Manganese.pdf>.

"Iron and Manganese Removal." National Environmental Service Center. National Drinking Water Clearinghouse, Sept. 1998. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/pdf/OT/TB/TB9_iron.pdf>.

EPA (1987). "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations – Synthetic Organic Chemicals; Monitoring for Unregulated Contaminants; Final Rule." Federal Register, 52 FR 25690, 1987-07-08

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC. "FACTOIDS: Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics for 2009"

Rosen, H; Klebanoff, SJ (1982). "Oxidation of Escherichia coli iron centers by the myeloperoxidase-mediated microbicidal system". The Journal of biological chemistry 257 (22): 13731–35. PMID 6292201

Stuart W. Krasner. (2009), The formation and control of emerging
disinfection by-products of health concern. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society, #367, 4077-4095.
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