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First Langauge Acquisition Theories
Transcript of First Langauge Acquisition Theories
conditioning in which the organism (in this case, a human being) emits a response, or operant(a sentence or utterance) without necessarily observable stimuli; that operant is maintained (learned) by reinforcement (a positive verbal or nonverbal response from another person.) Language acquisition is innately determined. The notion of linguistically oriented innate predispositions fits perfectly with generative theories of language: children were presumed to use innate abilities to generate a potentially infinite number of utterances.
Four innate linguistic properties of LAD (McNeill - 1966):
1. the ability to distinguish speech sounds from other sounds in the environment
2. the ability to organize linguistic data into various classes that can later be refined
3. knowledge that only a certain kind of linguistic system is possible and that other kinds are not.
4. the ability to engage in constant evaluation of the developing linguistic system so as to construct the simplest possible system out of the available linguistic input.
Bloom(1971) explained the relationships in which words occur in telegraphic utterances are only superficially similar, criticizing the 'Pivot Grammar'.
ex) "Mommy sock" example First Language Acquisition Theories Operant Conditioning: Behavioral Approaches The Nativist Approach Functional Approaches cognition & language development social interaction & language development LAD
UG Stimuli and Responses
Operant Conditioning Challenges: How to explain the abstract nature of language being developed, the deep structure interwoven in a person's total cognitive and affective experience Theory: Theory: 1. language as just one a manifestation of the cognitive and affective ability to deal
with the world, with others, and with the self 1. Behavioral Approaches
2. The Nativist Approach
3. Functional Appraoches c. observable language output b. deeper level of rule governed abstract language forms a. functional level of language meaning constructed from social interaction Pop Quiz Focus: perceptible aspects of linguistic behavior - publicly observable responses Focus: 2. language as a function with meaningful, interactive purposes within a social context. Theory:
Functional Approach (three possible relations) "Mommy sock" Holzman(1984)'s 'reciprocal model' of language development a reciprocal behavioral system operates between the language developing infant-child and the competent(adult) language user in a socializing
--- teaching/nurturing role
Functional Approaches Nature vs. Nurture Pop Quiz UG LAD Pop Quiz Language Acquisition Device Universal Grammar The Nativist Approach Functional Approaches Behavioral Approaches Cognition and Language Development Social Interaction and Language Development Piaget(1955) described overall development as the result of children’s interaction with the environment, with an interaction between their developing perceptual cognitive capacities and their linguistic experience. What children learn about language is determined by what they already know about the world. Bloom, Piaget, Slobin Functional Approaches 1. language as just one a manifestation of the cognitive and affective ability to deal
with the world, with others, and with the self Focus: 2. language as a function with meaningful, interactive purposes within a social context. Theory: Cognition and Language Development Children’s language acquisition is closely related to the learning of how social systems operate in human behavior. Since language is used for interactive communication, the function of language in discourse matters. Social Interaction and Language Development The child's first two words utterances seemed to manifest two separate word classes, and not simple two words thrown at random.
ex) two word utterances - pivot word + open word Pivot Grammar: LAD & UG Chomsky (1965) Children are born with this small box in children's brain, a metaphorical box that has the property of innate capacity of language acquisition. the belief that there is a system of universal linguistic rules that children bring to the language learning process. These hypothetical grammars were considered as the deep structure – the abstract rules underlying surface structure overly manifested in speech. The Nativist Approach The Nativist Approach pivot word + open word (2 word classes) agent - action (Mommy is putting the sock on.)
agent -object (Mommy sees the sock.)
possessor-possed (Mommy's sock)