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Enlightenment Philosophers: John Locke
Transcript of Enlightenment Philosophers: John Locke
in Wrington, Somerset,
England. John Locke In 1647, he went to
in London. Attended
Oxford in 1652. Character Puritan (like his parents) Skilled in medicine Well educated Interests in logic
and metaphysics Writings in Adult Life Writes his first major essay,
Two Treatises of Government. Locke puts forth revolutionary ideas of the natural rights of man and the social contract. Life Liberty Property Natural Rights (rights man is born with) Locke's ideas challenges the authority of Charles II. So, Locke is exiled
into Holland. “Men being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent.” “The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth, and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but to have only the law of nature for his rule.” “The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions...” In Holland, Locke writes
An Essay Concerning
Human Understanding. "...this argument of universal consent, which is made use of to prove innate principles, seems to me a demonstration that there are none such; because there are none to which all mankind give an universal assent." "So that if the capacity of knowing be the natural impression contended for, all the truths a man ever comes to know will, by this account, be every one of them innate: and this great point will amount to no more, but only to a very improper way of speaking; which, whilst it pretends to assert the contrary, says nothing different from those who deny innate principles." Locke arrives in England on 1688,
during James II's departure. Later Life John Locke spends the last decade
of his life in Essex England. Young John Locke Locke passes away on 1704 in Essex due
to his weak health. Impact on
Democracy John Locke's
Democracy Every man is born equally with 3 natural
rights. 1) Life 2) Liberty 3) Property The Declaration of Independence says, "... all men are created equal... with certain unalienable
Rights... Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness." Locke believes that the job of government is to PROTECT these rights. America creates the Bill of Rights and the Constitution to protect the natural rights of the people. Locke also promoted religious toleration. In the first Amendment of
the Bill of Rights, it says, "Congress shall make no law respecting an
establishment of religion..." American revolution was also based on this idea. If the government failed to do its job, the people have the right to overthrow it.