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Transcript of Music History
It is the history book of human creativity.
Every era and genre of music is connected.
You will explore each period from beginning to present.
It is assumed that music was created for spiritual needs and entertainment.
Music has been present since the beginning.
The very first instruments used in creating music was the voice, percussive items (like drums or clapping) and wooden or bone flutes.
A practical use for these instruments were as lures for hunting.
Before AD 500
During this time, basic notes and scales were being formed.
Different styles were beginning to develop in different areas of the world. These areas include:
(the most widely used, even today!) is an eight note scale of seven tones and one octave.
is a five note scale most famously used in the oriental style of music.
It can be easily played on the black keys of a piano!
AD 500 - 1450
Medieval music reflects the social and religious traditions of European culture in the Middle Ages.
Lasting nearly 1000 years, the Medieval Period is the longest era of music in the AD years.
The sacred music of the Catholic Church was most prevalent.
However, secular music was also very popular.
Plainchant is a very religious type of tune.
, meaning there is only one melody line with no harmony.
Plainchant has no set tempo, giving it a free and wandering feel.
Plainchant is also known as
, named after Pope Gregory I for his contribution to establish its usage in the Catholic church.
Despite the single melodies of plainchant, many music theorists began experimenting with multiple melody lines.
They used the fourth, fifth, and octave intervals between these woven melodies. This style became known as
As organum developed, the melody lines began to flow independently (illustrated above).
It was especially popular in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
Organum was also called
, Latin for
1450 - 1600
It was a rebirth of learning and of art in the European culture.
Music played a very important role in this "rebirth".
During this time, Catholicism was losing its dominant place in society because of Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation.
The Reformation created a humanist spirit evident in the Period's music.
Renaissance Dance Music is characterized by buoyant rhythms and sounds.
Dance music is solely instrumental.
An example of Renaissance Dance is Francisco de la Torre's
Renaissance Polyphony is very reflective of the Medieval Organum.
Like organum, polyphony is the interweaving of multiple melody lines.
It generally uses four melody lines (represented above).
You are listening to Josquin de Prez's
, a great example of Renaissance Polyphony.
The English Madrigal is just the English version of Renaissance Polyphony.
Thomas Morely was a famous madrigalist.
You are listening to his
April is in My Mistress' Face.
Queen Elizabeth I was known to have enjoyed the madrigal music. She was also a skilled lute player. (A lute is a guitar-like instrument)
1600 - 1750
The Baroque Period was known for composers who rebelled agaisnt the customs of Renaissance Music.
During this time, Europe was filled with monarchs and the music reflected a feeling of pomp.
The Baroque period saw the birth of the opera and concerto genres.
The Baroque style is characterized by its ornamental and structured form.
Three great composers of the Baroque period are:
Handel played the viola, harpsichord, oboe, and organ by age 11.
German born, he was intrigued by the Italian style of opera.
He experimented with the Italian opera in England, and his works gained him popularity there.
Ready to leave, Queen Anne convinced him to stay in England.
Handel composed over 40 operas while in England.
Public appeal for opera soon faded, so he turned to
Oratorio is a dramatic, choral type of music in the Baroque period with biblical meaning.
You are listening to the
from Handel's famous oratorio
Vivaldi was an Italian composer and violinist.
A concerto in the Baroque Period was a style of virtuoso instrumental music.
He was widely known for his violin solos and string
You are listening to
The Four Seasons
One of Vivaldi's most famous works is
The Four Seasons
, a collection of four concertos.
Bach was born the youngest of eight children.
Both of his parents died when he was 10.
Bach was an accomplished organist. He played in many churches and served in many courts.
At Age 21, Bach married his cousin Maria Barbara
After having seven children, Maria died suddenly. Bach remarried Anna Magdelina.
Bach composed many works for keyboard, strings and orchestra throughout his musical career.
You are listening to the Brandenburg Concerto No. 3, one of Bach's most famous works for strings
Bach succombed to blindness in 1749 and died of a stroke in 1750.
He is currently burried at Leipzig's Church of St. Thomas. Music scholars mark his death as the end of the Baroque era.
The Classical Period was known for its clean, uncluttered style.
Composers wanted to break away from the ornamentation of Baroque music.
They attempted to achieve a sound reminisent of Ancient Greece.
Three popular composers of the Classical Period are:
Haydn, second of 12 children, was born into a poor but musical family.
In 1781, he and Mozart became close friends and admired each other's music.
Haydn was a key developer of the symphony and string quartet
1750 - 1820
The Classical Period saw the development of symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets.
He composed literally hundreds of sonatas, quartets, symphonies, operas, and concertos.
Haydn loved adding humor to his works, like his "surprise" in
Symphony No. 94 in G Major
that you are listening to.
Mozart was an accomplished musician by the age of 4.
He began composing by age 6 and composed his first symphony by age 8.
Mozart spent the majority of his time on tour and performing between ages 7 and 15.
He was considered a master of all genres of his time (including serenades, dances, strings, winds, solo piano, symphony, and operas.
As mentioned earlier, Mozart and Haydn were close friends.
Haydn told Mozart's father, "Before God and as an honest man, your son is the greatest composer I know, either personally or by name."
You are listening to one of Mozart's most recognizable sanatas,
Rondo alla Turca (Turkish March)
Beethoven was forced into music training by his drunkard father. He wanted his son to be like Mozart.
Failing, he began to study under Haydn in 1792.
Now succeeding in his music carrer, he bacame known throughout Europe in 1794.
Beethoven brought a dramatic tone to the Classical genre through his compositions.
To his horror, he began to lose his hearing and became completely deaf.
Struggling to compose, he contemplated suicide. Despite this, he continued his carreer.
You are listening to one of his most recognizable works,
1810 - 1910
The Romantic Period gets its name from the heroic medieval romances its music reflectcs.
Composers of this time achieved a greater depth of emotion that sets them apart from the Classical Period.
Three well known composers of the Romantic period are:
Mendelssohn showed a talent for music at an early age.
He based his compositions on things that intrigued him.
He composed an entire overture based on Shakespeare's
A Midsummer Night's Dream
You are listening to
, a work in which Mendelssohn depicts the ancient caverns of Scotland.
Born in Poland, Chopin is known as the "Polish poet of the piano".
His love for the piano led to his over 200 solo piano compositions.
You are listening to his
Etude op. 10-12 (Revolutionary)
It is a prime example of the heroism and emotional depth the Romantic composers acheived.
Born of a poor German family, Brahms tried and struggled to use music as a source of income.
The Romantic era was fading, and his compositions were an attempt to continue Romanticism.
Brahm's later works evolved into a mix of Classical finesse and Romantic emotion.
This hybrid of music can be heard in his late work
Symphony No, 3 in F major, Op. 20.
2oth and 21st Centuries
1900 - Present
Some composers and artists of the 20th Century tried to stay true to the Classical and Romantic styles.
Many set themselves apart and broke away from the dying Romantic Period.
The 20th and 21st Century can not be defined as one genre. It is filled with loads of unique styles.
Three styles of this time you will explore are:
Impressionist music focuses creating an atmosphere rather than invoking emotions like Romantic music.
It uses abstract harmonies and fluid rhythms to create this atmosphere.
was actually stolen by the Impressionist artists and paintings this genre reflects.
One of the most notable Impressionist composers is Claude Debussy.
You are listening to his famous piano piece
Clair de Lune
20th and 21st Centuries
Jazz is arguably the most revolutionary music genre in American history.
Jazz became increasingly popular in the 1920s and 30s during
, and has been alive ever since.
Two of the greats from Jazz are Louis Armstrong and George Gershwin.
Armstrong, for his New Orleans style and his talent on the trumpet
Gershwin, for his fusion of Jazz and orchestra.
20th and 20st Centuries
Rock was just as revolutionary as Jazz.
Rock has its beginnigs in the 1950s with the earliest rock-and-roll songs.
Rock is such a vague genre with so many sub-genres (i.e. hard rock, rock-and-roll, jazz rock, metal, pop, etc.) that it could almost be considered a Period in itself.
Since then, it has shaped nearly every genre to come to this present day.
The basic "formula" for general rock music is:
You are listening to Chicago's
25 or 6 to 4
One presentation cannot possibly hold all of the
amazing music man has created.
Still, music history is not over. It is being made everyday.
How will future generations contribute to music?
A History of the Universal Language
You are listening to Armstrong's
Wild Man Blues.