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Transcript of Effect Categories
Dynamic effects are used to alter the relative loudness of the different components of a sound or piece of music. Examples of dynamic effects include
compressors, expanders, noise gates, and limiters
High Pass Filter
Low Pass Filter
Band Pass Filter
Hi, I'm Fernando Belforte in Austin, Texas USA and this lesson is for week 3 of coursera.org's Introduction to Music Production. I will be teaching a lesson on the different categories of effects and how they are used.
A compressor changes the output loudness of a signal that's above a given threshold. The compressor can act immediately or with a slight delay. This is called the
. When the signal falls back below the threshold the compressor can stop acting immediately or with a delay. This is called the
. The severity of the compression is given by the
. A high ratio means more compression and a lower one means less compression.
Use of compression
For example if a drum track has some softer snare hits along with some very loud ones a compressor can be used to make the loudest snare hits not much louder the the softer ones to achieve a more equal loudness of all snare hits.
An expander is a compressor in reverse. It increases the difference in loudness for sounds below a given threshold. It can be used to make quiet sounds quieter. This is useful to remove non musical sounds like the breath of a singer.
A noise gate is an extreme version of an expander in that it completely suppresses sounds below a given volume threshold.
A limiter is an extreme version of a compressor in that it completely limits the volume of any sounds above a given threshold. It is a compressor with a compression ratio of ∞ : 1
Delay effects use timing shifts to alter the sound. They
are used to create the impression that the sound is in a physical space or to create interesting artistic effects. Examples of delay effects include
reverb, delay, phaser, flanger, and chorus
Delay is similar to reverb but produces more of a distinct copy of the sound like an echo. The timing of the delay can be varied as well as the amount of decay each in each echo.
A phaser splits the signal in two paths, one path goes through an all-pass filter while the other one does not. The all-pass filter has the effect of delaying different frequencies by different amounts. When the two signals are recombined there will be phase cancellation at certain frequencies. This shows up as a series of notches in the frequency spectrum of the final signal. In addition, the phase delaying behavior of the all-pass filter is itself varied sinusoidally over time resulting in a sweeping "whoosh" effect.
Reverb is the result of combining a signal with multiple time delayed versions of itself, each one softer than the previous. This simulates the reverberations that occur when sound bounces off walls in a room or auditorium. Reverb is used to create a sense that the music is occuring in a physical space making it seem more like a live performance.
A flanger splits a signal in two, time delays one of the signals and recombines them. It is similar to a phaser except without the frequency dependent phase shifts. The resulting signal has notches in a more regular pattern than a phaser. The sound of a flanger is more subtle than that of a phaser.
Similar to a flange, a chorus effect also combines the signal with a time delayed version but it also modulates the pitch slightly. This gives the effect of multiple players of an instrument playing the same note at (almost) the same time. Depending on how pronounced the timining and tuning differences are and how quickly they change it can produce a dreamy effect.
Phaser vs Flanger
Notches in the frequency response of a phaser.
Filter effects directly affect the relative amounts of different frequencies in a signal. They are used to boost or suppress certain frequency ranges. Examples of filter effects include
high pass, low pass
band pass filters
as well as
This was my first time using Prezi so it took longer than I thought to put everything together. At first it was slow because I was trying to arrange everything as I did it. Then I realized it's easier to just put all the material in and resize and move things afterwards. I still haven't found a way to embed sounds, but I was able to use youtube links. As I researched this topic I wanted to learn about the difference between flanger and phaser. I was lucky to find a good youtube video so I included it.
Thank you for reviewing my assignment. I hope it was helpful and accurate. Please let me know what you think and if there are any things I could improve for next time.
High/Low/Band pass Filters
High, low and band pass filters all work on the same principle of preferring certain frequencies over others. A high pass filter will let the high frequencies through but suppress low frequencies. A low pass filter does the opposite. A band pass filter keeps frequencies within a given range or band and suppresses those outside the band.
A graphic equalizer is used to enhance or suppress different frequencies in the signal by moving physical or virtual levers up and down. Each lever controls the relative contribution of a particular frequency.
A parametric equalizer is like a graphic equalizer in that you can boost or suppress different frequencies. Unlike a graphic equalizer you can also choose the frequency each lever will operate on and the amount of influence it will have on neighboring frequencies. This gives a more fine grained control over the final contours of the frequency response.