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G322 Editing Revision
Transcript of G322 Editing Revision
ALL: Understand the mark scheme
MOST: Understand how to effectively analyse editing techniques
CHALLENGE: Show Level 4 analysis of editing and link to representation. G321 Exam: Section A What can you remember? How long is the whole exam?
What is included in Section A?
What is included in Section B?
How long should you spend on each section? What am I being marked on? How do I get a Level 4? Explanation/analysis/argument (16-20 marks)
Shows excellent understanding of the task
Excellent knowledge and understanding of the way that technical aspects are used to construct the extract’s representations
Clearly relevant to set question.
Use of examples (16-20 marks)
Offers frequent textual analysis from the extract – award marks to reflect the range and appropriateness of examples
Offers a full range of examples from each technical area
Offers examples which are clearly relevant to the set question.
Use of terminology (8-10 marks)
Use of terminology is relevant and accurate. Editing & Representation As a technical code, editing is primarily related to narrative, and many students struggle to make connections between editing and representation.
The next few slides are designed to help you start thinking about how editing can, if sometimes subtly, influence the audience’s reading of a character, and lead on to wider questions of representation. EYELINE MATCH Eyeline match usually provides insight to a characters’ private thoughts and could also be used to show relationships between that character and others in the scene.
What do the eyeline matches here show us about Martha and her relationships with others? FINAL SHOT In any scene, which character or characters are shown in the final shot of the sequence? This is often the character with which the audience is expected to identify.
What does this final shot tell us about the representation of gender? Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of gender using editing techniques: Section A
What are you being marked on?
What 4 bullet points are in the question?
What must you link these bullet points to?
What types of representation could they ask you about?
How many times do you watch the extract?
How should you plan your answer?
How long do you have to PLAN and WRITE your answer? PARALLEL EDITING Although typically a narrative device, parallel editing can set up juxtaposition between parallel storylines, exaggerating the impact or meaning of each by highlighting a point of difference.It can heighten the parallels/contrasts between two different characters in two different situations and offers an opportunity for juxtaposition.How is the match on action and intercutting used here effectively? What are we made to feel about the representation of status? PARALLEL EDITING (2) Parallel editing can ALSO be used to draw two storylines together. This can be structured to create tension, and therefore heighten the audience’s identification with a particular character.
What is the effect of the parallel editing here? What are we made to feel about the representation of ethnicity? JUMP CUTS These are rarely used in TV or film; when they are, they tend to suggest chaos and disorder / strained state of mind
What effect is created here by the jump cut? What are we made to think about gender? MOTIVATION A motivated edit is any transition forced on the editor by the development of the action, narrative or character. Whenever shot (a) refers to the existence of an event outside the frame, and we then cut to (b) which shows that event, that’s a motivated edit. We can sometimes judge a character’s worth or importance by the number of cuts they motivate.
What is the effect of the motivated editing here? What does the director want us to think about gender? PACE OF EDITING This can imply character qualities, especially if only one or two characters are in the sequence. A fast pace might suggest energy or panic (depending on context) while infrequent cuts (long takes) might suggest calm, a casual attitude, or provide documentary-style realism. Similar effects can be achieved with speed ramping and slow-motion.
What are the different effects in each of these clips caused by the pace of the editing? (sexuality) (gender) SCREEN TIME How much screen time does a character get? The more time we see them on screen, the more important their role. This can develop during a scene to change character’s status.
Who gets the most time in this scene and why? What does the director want us to think about class/status? SELECTION: to show or not to show As film-makers yourselves, it can sometimes be interesting to ask what information has been included or omitted in an edit.
e.g. in Primeval, as Jenny comes under increased threat from West, at no point do we cut away to her colleagues approaching the barn. To do so might have reduced the tension in the scene; not doing so arguably increases Jenny’s apparent vulnerability. Narratively, it is also a nice surprise when the team arrive in a single cut, which contrasts with the early tiger chase (see intercutting). SHOT / REVERSE SHOTS and REACTION SHOTS S/RS indicates the relationship between two characters: it signifies and sometimes exaggerates their closeness or their opposition. The amount of time given to a character’s reaction shots can convey their status in the scene. For example, if two characters are in S/RS conversation, do they get equal screen time, or do we spend more time looking at one character, speaking and reacting? Equally (though this is also a function of camera, are the two characters framed equally?
e.g.: in Doctor Who, the S/RS between Martha and the Master makes Martha seem of a greater status as a character, even if narratively she appears defeated. James Baker (OCR Assistant Principal Examiner G322) writes: One approach to both sound and editing is to look at the way in which technical elements are used to create perspective or viewpoint within a sequence - a key element of the process of representation that goes beyond the identification of 'character traits'.
By understanding, for example, how screen time, p.o.v. or reaction shots are distributed, even weaker students can see how hierarchies are established, leading to certain representations being privileged where others are marginalised.
Stronger students are able to develop this further by discussing how the audience is positioned in relation to the representations on offer.
Another important factor is the way that the editing of the sequence grants or witholds narrative information from the audience in order to encourage identification or rejection of particular characters/representations. Example question …