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Chapter Eleven: The Directoire Period and the Empire Period
Transcript of Chapter Eleven: The Directoire Period and the Empire Period
The Empire Period
By: Ashley Pollard & Jasmine Ellis
Both periods were during the French Revolution
Neoclassical Period's influence in the 19th century on art and fashion
Directoire Period (c. 1790 - 1800) established the Directory
Napoleon Bonaparte ruled during the Empire Period (1800 - 1815)
France was in social, political, and economic trouble
Revolution broke out in 1789, lead by the Bourgeoisie
Louis XVI called for the Estates General to meet
The French Revolution and the Directory
Simplified, English-influenced styles
Citizens wore the revolutionary colors--red, white, and blue--to make a passionate statement
Revolutionary-colored flowers and ribbons
September 21, 1793, tricolor ribbon cockade were made mandatory.
Women's Costume during the French Revolution
Girl's dresses were cut shorter with pantalettes
Girls wore shawls and dresses outdoors and bonnets
Boys wore skeleton suits ( trousers buttoned to a frilled collared shirt)
Children's Dress During the Empire Period
The Grand Master of Ceremonies declared:
The First Estate (Clergy) must wear dress traditional to ecclesiastical ranks.
The Second Estate (Aristocrats) must wear black silk coats and breeches, white stockings, lace cravats, and swords.
The Third Estate (various people from the middle class and peasants) must wear black suits and capes, black stockings, muslin cravats, and black three-cornered hats.
That's a Fact!
The Estates General became the National Assembly and abolished feudalism
France adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
War broke out in 1792. Louis XVI was tried and executed
The Directoire took control of France and consisted of five men.
Men's Costume During The French Revolution
Women's Change of Dress After the Revolution
The bonnet rouge ( the red cap of liberty)
The costume of the sans culottes(without knee breeches)
The carmagnole, a dark, short woolen or cloth jacket
Woolen or cloth trousers or of red, white, and blue striped drill.
red waistcoats and clogs or sabots
Pantaloons (tight-fitting ankle length trousers)
A brand new style that started in England had obvious Greek influence
Dresses with little or no sleeves with a low round neckline and high waist
Muslin or linen
Sheer without much undergarments
The Merveilleuses(the marvelous ones) set the trends and the standards for this style
Men's Change of Dress After the Revolution
The Incroyables (incredibles) set the standard for the new trends.
Waistcoats that were loose-fitting at the shoulders
cravats and neckties
extremely high-necked collars
Both men and women wore shaggy, unkempt hairstyles
The Empire Period
Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Directoire in 1799 and was crowned Emperor in 1804 and abdicated in 1814
During his reign, he outlawed the styles of the Merveilleuse and Incroyable
demanded more French goods and restricted imported fabrics
Emperess Josephine secretly continued to import her massive wardrobe
King George III reigned until porphyria incapacitated him
Prince of Wales named Regent during the Regency Period (1811-20)
Fashion differences were evident between England and France
The United States
Trade with Native Americans merged their styles with European dress
"Indian Blankets" were turned into hooded coats
moccasins from deer and moose skins or hide
Tortora, Phyllis G., Keith Eubank. Survey of Historic Costume, 5th Edition. Fairchild Books. New York, 2010.