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Transcript of Imogene King
I hope you enjoy my prezi on Imogene King!
I especially hope the creative format helps you better engage the content and inspires your own creativity in nursing practice. This is a movie--press its play button Context, Life, & Work Major Concepts Application & Impact Literature The Future Summary Who? Born in Iowa in 1923
Died in Florida in 2007
Female, Caucasian, Roman Catholic
Avid Golfer PERSONAL Dr. King's legacy to nursing is immense but I will always remember her kindness as a person. She took me under her wing when I was a young nurse who had just moved to Chicago and was embarking on my career. She offered advice and counsel and was a mentor to me as I served as a first time delegate to INA & ANA. She will be missed by many! My condolences to her family.
~ Maureen Shekleton, Glen Ellyn, Illinois EDUCATION 1945 Diploma, St. John's Hospital School of Nursing, St. Louis, Missouri
1948 BSN, St. Louis University
1957 MSN, St. Louis University
1961 EdD, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York
1980 Honorary PhD, Southern Illinois University
1998 Honorary Doctorate, Loyola University 1945-1968 Various RN staff roles, clinical instructor, assistant director of the diploma program at St. John's Hospital, Associate Professor at Loyola University; Assistant Chief of Research Grants at the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
1968-1972 Director of Ohio State University School of Nursing, Coordinator of Research in Clinical Nursing at Loyola Medical Center
1980 Professor at University of South Florida
1990 Professor Emeritus at University of South Florida RN WORK Work WRITING 1968 "A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Nursing"
1971 "Toward a Theory of Nursing: General Concepts of Human Behavior"
1981 "A Theory for Nursing: Systems, Concepts, Processes"
1986 "Curriculum and Instruction in Nursing: Concepts and Processes"
Numerous other book chapters, articles, and guest lectures
Editorial Board Member: Nursing Science Quarterly Recognition Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing, 1994
Living Legend Award, 2005 President of the Florida Nurses Foundation
Florida Nurses Association Hall of Fame Sigma Theta Tau International, Virginia Henderson Fellow
1989 Elizabeth Russell Founders Award (Sieloff & Messmer, 2010) (Sieloff & Messmer, 2010) (Sieloff & Messmer, 2010) (Sieloff & Messmer, 2010) Hall of Fame: Teachers College, Columbia University (Sieloff & Messmer, 2010) Exploring Imogene King's
contributions to nursing theory King is widely recognized as a pioneer of nursing theory: Conceptual System "...the organized wholes in which nurses are expected to function" (King, 1995, p.23). The "focus is on the continuing ability of individuals to meet their basic needs
so that they may function in their socially defined roles,
and on individuals' interactions within three open, dynamic, interacting systems.
("Imogene King’s Conceptual System," 2009) King's Conceptual System In Focus: Personal systems are individuals, who are regarded as rational, sentient, social beings. CONCEPTS: Perception, Self, Growth, Body Image, Time, Space, Learning Interpersonal systems are composed of two, three, or more individuals interacting in a given situation CONCEPTS: Interactions, Transactions, Role, Communication, Stress, Coping Social systems are are organized boundary systems of social roles, behaviors, and practices developed to maintain values and the mechanisms to regulate the practices and roles. CONCEPTS: Organization, Authority, Power, Status, Decision Making, Control (King, 1981) Four concepts in the theory of goal attainment (perception, communication, interaction, transaction) were selected to form the transaction process. This process provides theoretical knowledge that is used to implement the nursing process method of assess, diagnose, plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care. (King, 2007) (King, 1997) (King, 1997) King's Theory of Goal Attainment and her Transactional Process are described as the theory behind the Nursing Process which may also be viewed as a method. Definitions Health: "dynamic life experiences of a human being, which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in the internal and external environment through optimum use of one's resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living" (King, 1981, p.5) Person: unique, holistic, individuals who are usually capable of rational decision making (King, 1997).
Individuals are "social, sentient, spiritual and rational human beings who act in situations by perceiving, controlling, and exhibiting purposeful action-oriented behavior over time." (King, 1997, p.21) Nursing: "an observable behavior found in healthcare systems in society" (King, 1971, p.125)
"Nursing is an interpersonal process of action, reaction, interaction, and transaction. Perceptions of the nurse and patient also influence the interpersonal process" (Sieloff& Messmer, 2010, p.292). Environment: "Adjustments to life and health are influenced by individual's interaction with environment... making transactions with individuals and things in the environment" (Sieloff& Messmer, 2010, p.292).
The conceptual system proposed by King is a dynamic system in which individuals, groups and systems interact with their own internal and external environments. Mary Killeen: "Imogene King was a leader even in her diploma program. She was determined to make a difference in her life and found nursing a challenge. When she studied at Columbia, she decided to look at other disciplines for understanding of the nursing phenomena of systems and perception. She managed to do an extensive literature review that would be considered a systematic review in today’s evidence-based practice world. Impressive as that was, it was her synthesis of knowledge from other disciplines and from the practice of nursing that melded her conceptual system. Looking back at that time, I believe she felt she was inspired because she transcended what was known about nursing, yet her work still applies today. Since 2000, there have been 11 middle-range theories published that are derived from King’s conceptual system" (Clarke, Killeen, Messmer, & Sieloff, 2009, p.129) What do you think made her such an innovator? Patricia Messmer: "I think a big factor in terms of King’s wisdom was her Jesuit education. It had an impact on her values and discipline."
"King was very knowledgeable about nursing ethics and served as an advisor to the revision of the ANA Code of Ethics."
(Clarke, Killeen, Messmer, & Sieloff, 2009, p.129) Ethics and Values Christina Sieloff: "Dr. King demonstrated her insight in recognizing that her conceptual system could not directly be applied to practice situations. Thus, at the same time, she developed the middle-range theory of goal attainment that could be used by any nurse in any situation to further improve quality of care. As a result, her framework and related theory can be used by all nurses in all nursing situations from direct clinical care with patients in a variety of health situations to nurse administrators and managers,who are working with their clients (the nursing staff) to further improve the work environment. Nurse educators can use King’s theory to help students achieve mutually set educational goals. Nurse researchers can use King’s theory and framework to not only guide their research, but to also work with the research participants to answer research questions of concern to both nursing and patients." (Clarke, Killeen, Messmer, & Sieloff, 2009, p.130) Insight: Making Theory Work Mary Killeen: "I predict in 2058, King’s conceptual system will have spawned even more middle-range theories and will have made an impact on the fields of nursing informatics, evidence-based nursing, and telenursing. With increasing technology and global communication, the personal, interpersonal, and social systems will remain the basis for nursing situations just as King originally proposed. Her original work has held up well these past 37 years and I predict her work will continue to be relevant."
(Clarke, Killeen, Messmer, & Sieloff, 2009, p.129) Christina Sieloff: "During the evolution of Dr. King’s framework and theory, the nursing profession went from frequently demonstrating oppressed group behavior to working more in partnership with patients and other members of the healthcare team.
Dr. King’s work contributed to the professionalism of nursing by continuing to emphasize nurses’ partnerships, not only with patients, but with other care providers. Nurses were colleagues, equals with other healthcare providers. At the same time, patients were also viewed as colleagues and equals with nurses in the planning and implementation of nursing care.During this time period, King modeled her beliefs regarding nurses’ responsibilities to improve the profession in whatever way possible: service, education, administration, research, or political activism." (Clarke, Killeen, Messmer, & Sieloff, 2009, p.130) Transformative Influence Examples of studies that use King's theories McKinney and Dean (2000) used King's conceptual system in their study of the relationship between childhood abuse and alcohol dependency and abuse in adulthood. This illustrates the applicability of King's theories to practical research questions that have the potential for impacting the health of vulnerable populations. Frey (1995) developed a middle-range theory of families, children, and chronic illness using King's conceptual system. Middle range theories are very applicable to practice. The use of King's conceptual framework by Frey and many others helps demonstrate the theory's utility. Kameoka (1995) demonstrated the usefulness of King's Theory of Goal Attainment in the Japanese context. Her study of nurse-patient interactions also demonstrates a broad acceptance and applicability of King's theoretical work in clinical settings. Numerous hospitals and health systems around the world have uses aspects of King's theories to help reform nursing practice. King's main contribution to nursing science was the development of her conceptual system and her Theory of Goal Attainment
Her framework and her goal-oriented, nurse-patient focused theory have proven to be useful in the development of new nursing knowledge in a wide range of settings
King left behind a legacy of scholarship, professionalism, service, and caring that has the potential to inspire future nursing
(Sieloff& Messmer, 2010) Personal: the human being
Interpersonal: 2-3 people interacting (dyad or triad)
Social: family, religion, hospital, government etc. Answers the question: What is nursing? DYNAMIC: constant change
OPEN: no clear lines between each system
INTERACTING: each system alters the others (Sieloff & Messmer, 2010) Theory of Goal Attainment "Nursing practice is directed toward helping individuals maintain their health so they can function in their roles" ("Imogene King’s Conceptual System," 2009). The Theory of Goal Attainment:
What is nursing in action? The theory of goal attainment seeks to more closely define "nursing" as well as a number of other concepts: the relationships between this concepts in the theory are often complex. (McEwin & Wills, 2011, p.163) The essence of goal attainment theory:
The nurse and the patient work together to define and reach goals that they set together.
The patient and nurse each perceive, judge, and act, and together the patient and nurse react and interact.
At the end of this process of communication and perceiving, if a goal has been set a transaction is said to have occurred.
The nurse and patient also decide on an acceptable approach to work toward the goal that has been chosen.
The main function of nursing is to increase or to restore the health of the patient, so goals are related to the health (and dignity) of the patient.
After goals have been defined by the nurse and patient together, both parties work toward the stated goals.
This involves interactions with other systems, such as other healthcare workers, the patient's family, or other social systems.
(King, 1981) An article about my first year in nursing