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Prostate Cancer

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by

Emily French

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Prostate Cancer

Screening/Testing
usually begin yearly screening after age 40
Physical exam
DRE (Digital Rectal Exam)
Laboratory testing
PSA (Prostate-specific antigen)
Results and Readings
PSA:
adult levels of PSA are approximately reached at age 15
levels below 4 are normally seen in healthy men
15% of men with a level below 4 will have a prostate cancer diagnosis after having a biopsy
men with borderline levels between 4 and 10 have a 1 in 4 chance in having prostate cancer
men with levels greater than 10 have a 50% chance that they have prostate cancer
Works Cited
What is prostate cancer?
several types of cancer are found in the prostate
Gland cells
Adenocarcinoma
Other types of cancer can also start in the prostate gland
sarcomas
small cell carcinomas
transitional cell carcinomas
Risk Factors
age
race/ethnicity
nationality
family history
genetics
diet
workplace exposures
obesity, smoking, STI,vasectomy, prostatitis
What is the prostate?
only found in males
located in front of the rectum and beneath the bladder
size varies by age, but is usually the size of a walnut
Prostate Cancer
Adenocarcinoma
a type of cancer that forms in mucus-secreting glands throughout the body
most prevalent in
lung
prostate
pancreatic
esophageal
colorectal
Prevention
healthy diet, exercise, stay at a healthy weight
medications
5-alpha reductase inhibitors
"Adenocarcinoma." - Cancer Types & Treatment Options. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2014.
"American Cancer Society | Information and Resources for Cancer: Breast, Colon, Lung, Prostate, Skin." American Cancer Society | Information and Resources for Cancer: Breast, Colon, Lung, Prostate, Skin. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014.
Burtis, Carl A., Edward R. Ashwood, and Norbert W. Tietz. "Pathophysiology." Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1999. N. pag. Print.
"Chemiluminescence Immunoassay." TheFreeDictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2014.
"Lumigen, Inc. - Chemistry That Brings Meaning to Light." Chemiluminescence · Lumigen. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2014.
"National Cancer Institute." Comprehensive Cancer Information -. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
"VITROS® MicroWell™ Technology." VITROS® MicroWell™ Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2014.
PSA (Prostate-specific antigen)
PSA:
substance made by cells in the prostate gland
mostly found in semen, but small amounts in blood
Factors that cause an increase in PSA levels:
enlarged prostate
older age
prostatitis
ejaculation
riding a bicycle
certain urologic procedures
certain medicines
Factors that cause a decrease in PSA levels:
5-alpha reductase inhibitors
herbal mixtures
obesity
aspirin
statins
thiazide diuretics
VITROS® 5600
The VITROS® 5600 uses Microslide, Microtip, Microwell, Intellicheck and Microsensor technology. The PSA is ran using Microwell technology.
Microwell technology:
enables excellent assay sensitivity and precision
allows small sample volumes
minimizes waste with a small Microwell
features Enhanced Chemiluminescence Detection Technology that delivers:
improved signal output, even at low analyte concentrations, for better detection
excellent sensitivity and precision
broad dynamic range
Chemiluminescence
Chemiluminescence is the generation of electromagnetic radiation as light by the release of energy from a chemical reaction. To achieve the highest level of sensitivity, a chemiluminescent reaction must be as competent as possible in generating photons of light.
Prostate Cancer

Staging System
Gleason System
PV2 Emily French
68K MLT Student
Class 2013-03
13 February 2014
American Joint Committee on Cancer:
created the TNM system
based on 5 key pieces on information
the extent of the primary tumor
whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
the absence or presence of distant metastasis
PSA level at the time of diagnosis
Gleason score, based on biopsy
Gleason score:
based on numbers from 1 to 5 to determine how much the cells in the cancerous tissue look like normal prostate tissue
1 being the most normal, 5 being the most abnormal
prostate often assigned 2 separate grades
these numbers added together create the Gleason score, or sum
Percent-free PSA
2 major forms of PSA
one form is attached to blood proteins, while the other circulates free (unattached)
ratio of how much PSA is circulating unattached compared to the total PSA
lower in men who have prostate cancer than men who do not
lower fPSA means the liklihood of having prostate cancer is higher and one should probably have a biopsy
PSA Density
usually used in men with naturally larger prostates
larger prostates have higher PSA levels
measure of the prostate gland (via transrectal ultrasound) divided by the PSA level
PSA Density has not been proven more useful than Percent-free PSA
The PSA test uses a marble top tube, or a serum separator tube.
Treatment Options
Treatment options differ by patient. Treatments are generally used one at a time, but can sometimes be used simutaneously. Some treatment options include:
expectant management
surgery
raditation therapy
cryosurgery
hormone therapy
chemotherapy
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