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Influences on the American Revolution
Transcript of Influences on the American Revolution
By : Megan Boucher in my vershoin
Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas
John Cabot discovers & claims Newfoundland & New England
England's King John signs the Magna Carta
-Middle Ages (500 - 1500)-
Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenburg Church
Henry VIII separated with the Catholic Church paving the way for the Protestant Reformation to take root in England—especially among the Calvinists.
John Calvin writes his Institutes of Christian Religion
William Tyndale executed for translating the Bible into English
Edward the VI
Lady Jane Grey
Mary I of Scots
James VI of Scotland
English Civil War
Bill of Rights
King James Bible
1st permanent English settlement
Plymouth Colony Established
Massachusetts Bay Colony established
of Plymouth & Massachusetts
Influences on the American Revolution Timeline
General Fundamentals of Connecticut
Westminster Confession of the Faith
Irish Confederate Wars
North & South
Benjamin Franklin born
Act of Union
England conquerers New Netherlands
“May he judge your people in righteousness, your afflicted ones with justice. May he defend the afflicted among the people and save the children of the needy; may he crush the oppressor.” Psalm 72:2-4
“For he will deliver the needy who cry out, the afflicted who have no one to help.” –Psalm 72:12
Care for the Poor
Divine right: 1Pet.2:4 “rejected by humans but chosen by God.”
Punish disobedient: 1Pet2:5 “They stumble because they disobey the message”
Encouraged participation: 1Pet2:9-10 “but you are a chosen people a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light. Once you were not a people, but now you are the people of God; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.”
Bible guideline/divine right: 1Pet2:13-17 “Submit yourselves for the Lord’s sake to every human authority: whether to the emperor as the supreme authority, or to governors, who are sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to commend those who do right. For it is God’s will that by doing well you should silence the ignorant talk of foolish people. Live as free people, but do not use your freedom as a cover-up for evil; live as God’s slaves. Show proper respects to everyone, love the family of believers, fear God, and honor the emperor.”
Natural rights 1Pet2:18-19 “Slaves, in reverent fear of God submit yourselves to your masters, not only to those who are good and considerate, but also to those who are harsh. For it is commendable if someone bears up under the pain of unjust suffering because they are conscious of God.”
1 Peter 2
Date: around 62-64 A.D.
Context: The church in Jerusalem was being scattered under torture and heavy persecution from Emperor Nero. He wrote this book to Christians in general, especially Gentile Christians.
1 Peter 2
Praying for those in govt.: 1Tim 2:1-2 “I urge, then, first of all, that petitions, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for all people—for kings and all those in authority”
Trial by jury: 1Tim2:5 “for there is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus”
1 Timothy 2
Date: around 54 A.D.
Context: Paul was writing to Timothy on how to manage the church in Ephesus.
1 Timothy 2
Representatives of God with Freedom to Express Themselves: Acts 5:21- “At daybreak they entered the temple courts, as they had been told, and began to teach the people.”
Trial by Jury: Acts 5:27- “The apostles were brought in and made to appear before the Sanhedrin to be questioned by the high priest.”
Freedom to Believe What you Want: Acts 5:29- “ ‘We must obey God rather than human beings!’ ”
Witness in Trial: Acts 5:34- “But a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, who was honored by all the people, stood up in the Sanhedrin and ordered that the men be put outside for a little while.” Then he reasoned with the Sanhedrin about the men's innocence.
Divine Right and Representative Government: Acts 5:39- “But if it is from God, you will not be able to stop these men; you will only find yourselves fighting against God.”
Freedom of Expression and Free Enterprise: Acts 5:42- “Day after day, in the temple courts and from house to house, they never stopped teaching and proclaiming the good news that Jesus is the Messiah.”
Free enterprise Acts 5:1-2 “piece of property. With his wife’s full knowledge he kept back part of the money for himself”
Right to private property: Acts 5:2- “sold a piece of property.”
God’s Role in Government/Punish the Disobedient: Acts 5:4-5- “‘Didn’t it belong to you before it was sold? And after it was sold, wasn’t the money at your disposal? What made you think of doing such a thing? You have not lied just to human beings but to God.’ When Ananias heard this, he fell down and died. And great fear seized all who heard what had happened.”
Bible is Guideline: Take Care of each other in community: Acts 5- Giving money to each other in church community
Arrest without Trial by Jury: Acts 5:18- “They arrested the apostles and put them in the public jail.”
Date: around 63 A.D.
Context: Luke wrote this about the time right after Jesus ascended into heaven, when the early church was setting itself up. This book records what happened concerning believers, including trials and persecution.
Divine right: Rom. 13:4 “For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good.”
Punish disobedient: Rom. 13:4 “agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer.”
Govt. right to tax: Rom 13:6 “pay taxes”
Date: about 57 A.D.
Context: Paul was about to visit Rome. He is giving the Romans instructions about how they should live their life, especially concerning their submission to governing authorities.
Equal justice under law: Jer. 23:2 “bestowed care on them, I will bestow punishment on you for the evil you have done
Divine right: Jer 23:4 “I will place shepherds over them who will tend them”
Purpose: Jer. 23:5 “A king who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land”
Divine right and God’s role: Rom. 13:1 “for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God.”
Date: sometime from 626-586 B.C.
Jeremiah spoke to the people of Judah during the reigns of the last five kings. He is prophesying about Jesus’ coming and His future reign.
Divine right: Ps. 72:1 “Endow the king with your just, O God.”
Due course of law/justice: Ps 72:2 “he judges your people in righteousness, your afflicted ones with justice.”
Care for the poor: Ps. 72:4 “May he defend the afflicted among the people and the children of the need; may he crush the oppressor.”
Reward for those who do well: Ps. 72:7 “may the righteous flourish”
Purpose of caring for poor: Ps 72:12-13 “he will deliver the needy who cry out…he will take pity on the weak and the needy and save the needy from death.”
Participation in religion and govt.: Ps 72:17 “Then all nations will be blessed through him, and they will call him blessed.”
Date: During Solomon’s reign
Context: Psalms were primarily praises used in God’s temple. This psalm is Solomon praising God for His goodness and asking for His blessing over him and his kingdom.
Popular sovereignty: Dt. 17:15- “Be sure to appoint over you a king the Lord your God chooses.”
Bible is guideline: Dt. 17:18 “He is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law.”
Equal under law: Dt. 17:20 “Not consider himself better than his fellow Israelites.”
Reward for those who do well: Dt. 17:20 “Turn from the law to the right or the left. Then he and his decedents will reign for a long time.
Date: around 1406 B.C.
Context: Moses leads the Israelites in the desert. Moses is giving them the law and instructions for when they enter the Promise Land and have to set up their government with the king they requested.
Ibeji, Mike. "King John and the Magna Carta." BBC History. BBC, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/magna_01.shtml>.
"Magna Carta 1215." Lillian Goldman Law Library. Yale Law School, 2008. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/magframe.asp>.
All these customs and liberties that we have granted shall be observed in our kingdom in so far as concerns our own relations with our subjects. Let all men of our kingdom, whether clergy or laymen, observe them similarly in their relations with their own men.
Written code of laws
No sheriff, royal official, or other person shall take horses or carts for transport from any free man, without his consent. Neither we nor any royal official will take wood for our castle, or for any other purpose, without the consent of the owner.
Right to private property
The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and free customs, both by land and by water. We also will grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall enjoy all their liberties and free customs
All barons who have founded abbeys, and have charters of English kings or ancient tenure as evidence of this, may have guardianship of them when there is no abbot, as is their due. All forests that have been created in our reign shall be at once disafforested. River-banks that have been enclosed in our reign shall be treated similarly.
The Magna Carta
Chloe Stewart and Shirly Tan
All merchants may enter or leave England unharmed and without fear, and may stay or travel within it, by land or water, for purposes of trade, free from all illegal exactions, in accordance with ancient and lawful customs. This, however, does not apply in time of war to merchants from a country that is at war with us. Any such merchants found in our country at the outbreak of war shall be detained without injury to their persons or property, until we or our chief justice have discovered how our own merchants are being treated in the country at war with us. If our own merchants are safe they shall be safe too.
Capitalism, equal justice under the law
In future no official shall place a man on trial upon his own unsupported statement, without producing credible witnesses to the truth of it. No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any other way, nor will we proceed with force against him, or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land. To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice.
Trial by witness, due process, equal justice under the law
Citizen Trials (Cont.)
For a trivial offence, a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence, and for a serious offence correspondingly, but not so heavily as to deprive him of his livelihood. In the same way, a merchant shall be spared his merchandise, and a husbandman the implements of his husbandry, if they fall upon the mercy of a royal court. None of these fines shall be imposed except by the assessment on oath of reputable men of the neighbourhood.
No cruel or unusual punishment, trial by jury, no loss of rights or property without a trial, due process
First, that we have granted to God, and by this present charter have confirmed for us and our heirs in perpetuity, that the English Church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished, and its liberties unimpaired.
Churches are free from the pressures of the state
Written and signed in June of 1215 – means “Great Charter” in Latin
Basically a list of written promises held between the King, which would be King John at the time, and his Barons
The relationship between the King and his Barons suffered, as well as between John and The Catholic church
Continued disputes between the King and his Barons resulted in John’s eventual defeat and his willingness to discuss a resolution, which conceived the Magna Carta
This document originally lasted for only three months before John violated the feudal law found within it in order to dominate the Barons
John finally contracted dysentery from over-eating and died during a battle with the Barons; the Magna Carta was simultaneously reissued
Alchin, L K. "Magna Carta 1215." The Middle Ages . N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/magna-carta.htm>.
"Magna Carta 1215." The Avalon Project: Magna Carta. Yale Law School, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/magframe.asp.>.
The church was to be free from royal interference.
No taxes except the regular dues unless by the agreement of the Parliament.
The right to due process led to Trial by Jury.
The Magna Carta became the basis for the rights of all English citizens.
Housing (quartering) soldiers in private homes:
It is duty as an English citizen to house soldiers in their homes.
“No constable shall force any knight to pay money for castleward if he be willing to perform that ward in person, or—he for a reasonable cause not being able to perform it himself—through another proper man. And if we shall have led or sent him on a military expedition, he shall be quit of ward according to the amount of time during which, through us, he shall have been in military service.” (p. 4, #29, lines 1-4)
The freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation.
“All merchants may safely and securely go out of England, and come into England… for the purpose of buying and selling, free from all evil taxes.” (p. 5, #41, lines 1-3)
Any right that exists based on virtue of natural law.
“The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and customs…” (p. 2, #13, lines 1,2)
“Wherefore we will and firmly decree that the English church shall be free, and that the subjects of our realm shall have and hold all the aforesaid liberties… forever, as has been said.” (p. 8, #63, lines 1-4)
Freedom of conscience:
The freedom to think what you want to think.
Freedom to express yourself:
“And, to any one who wishes to do so, we publicly and freely give permission to swear; and we will never prevent any one from swearing.” (p. 7, #61, lines 18,19)
Freedom to worship how you want/believe how you want:
“All barons who have founded abbeys for which they have charters for the king of England, or ancient right of tenure, shall have, as they ought to have, their custody when vacant.” (p. 5, #46, lines 1,2)
“Wherefore we will and firmly decree that the English church shall be free, and that the subjects of our realm shall have and hold all the aforesaid liberties, rights and concessions, duly and in peace, freely and quietly, fully and entirely, for themselves and their heirs from us and our heirs, in all matters and in all places, forever, as has been said. Moreover it has been sworn… that all these above mentioned provisions shall be observed with good faith and without evil intent.” (p. 8, #63, lines 1-5)
The power to take private property for public use by a state, municipality, or private person or corporation authorized to exercise functions of public character.
“If any earl, baron, or other person that holds the lands directly of the Crown, for military service, shall die…”(p. 1, #2, lines 1-3)
“The guardian of the land of an heir who is under age shall take from it only reasonable revenues, customary dues, and feudal services.”(p. 1, #4, lines 1,2)
“ For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it…”(p. 1, #5, lines 1,2)
“To those who hold lands directly of us we will cause a general summons to be issued, through the sheriffs and other officials, to come together on a fixed day… and at a fixed place.”(p. 2, #14, lines 3-5)
Right to private property:
Land, including things on the land, owned by a person or a group of people for their own personal use.
“Neither we nor our bailiffs shall take another’s wood for castles or for other private uses, unless by the will of him to whom the wood belongs.”(p. 4, #31, lines 1,2)
Witnesses in trials:
A trial in which witnesses are called to testify.
“No bailiff, on his own simple assertions, shall henceforth any one to his law, without producing faithful witnesses in evidence.” (p. 4, #38, line 1)
No cruel or unusual punishment:
No citizen shall be forced to perform more punishment than is due.
“No man shall be forced to perform more service for a knight’s ‘fee’, or other free holding of land, than is due from it.” (p. 3, #16, line 1)
“Neither a town nor a man shall be forced to make bridges over the rivers, with the exception of those who, from of old and of right ought to do it.” (p. 3, #23, lines 1,2)
Punish the disobedient:
Punishing men (or women) convicted of of felonies, crimes, murders, etc.
When convicted of felony, the lands of that person shall be taken by the government (p. 4, #32, lines 1,2).
Equal justice under the law:
Every English citizen is given equal rights and justice according to the law.
“To none will we sell, to none deny or delay, right or justice.” (p. 4. #40, line1)
Citizen Trials Continued
No loss of rights or property without a trial:
No property or rights can be taken away by government without a proper trial.
“If any one shall have been disseized by us, or removed, without a legal sentence from his peers, from his lands, castles, liberties or lawful right, we shall straightway restore them to him.” (p. 6, #52, lines 1,2)
“If we have disseized or dispossessed Welshman of their lands or liberties or other things without legal judgment of their peers, in England or Wales,--they shall straightway be restored to them.” (p. 6, #56, lines 1-3)
Trial by jury:
A trial in which the final decision of an issue is to be determined by a jury (usually a group of 12 or more men).
“If any assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, as many knights and freeholders shall afterwards remain behind, of those who have attended the court, as will suffice fro the administration of justice, having regard to the volume of business to be done.” (p. 3, #19, lines 1-3)
“And if dispute shall arise concerning this matter it shall be settled according to the judgment of the twenty-five barons who are mentioned below as sureties for the peace.” (p. 6, #52, lines 2,3)
Imprisoning citizens without a trial by jury:
Citizens cannot be taken or imprisoned without the say of a jury in a trial.
“No freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized, or exiled, or in any way harmed—nor will we go upon or send upon him—saved by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.” (p. 4, #39, lines 1,2)
Government in the hands of the people
The freedom that people shall be observed in good faith by their heirs, peers and friends and that all free men in the realm will be granted all liberties.
No one shall be taken prisoner on account of the appeal of a woman concerning the death of her husband.
The government gives people the permission to swear, and never to prevent them from doing so.
People share power with rulers
“No sheriff, constable, coroners, or other bailiffs of ours shall hold the pleas of our crown.” (24)
Men are not forced to be justices, constable, sheriffs, or bailiffs unless they are part of the law of the land and observe it rightly.
“To non will we sell, to none deny or delay, right or justice.” (40)
The people of London will enjoy all of the ancient liberties and free customs as well as all other cities, ports, and towns.
No taxation without representation
No constable shall force his knight to pay money if he is willing to perform it in person.
People’s permission to keep army, tax people, suspend laws
“Neither we nor our officials will seize any land or rent in payment of a debt, so long as the debtor has movable goods sufficient to discharge the debt.” (9)
There is only supposed to be one measure of wine in the realm, and one measure of ale, and certain amounts of corn, dye, russet, and cloths.
Denying divine right
All people in all counties shall continue according to the old farms, without any increase at all.
A written code of laws
After a woman’s husband dies, she may have her marriage portion and inheritance without any trouble. She doesn’t owe any money at all.
“Ordinary lawsuits shall not follow the royal court around, but shall be held in a fixed place.” (17)
King John and Pope Innocent III were in disagreement about who should be named the Archbishop of Cantebury. The pope got his way.
King John became infuriated and began passing cruel and outrageous laws on the people of England.
Archbishop Stephen Langton and other powerful barons of England wrote the Magna Carta in order to make the King govern by and enforce only the laws that existed before the Normans had come to England.
The Magna Carta is the document that limited the amount of power the King held and created the English Parliament.
King John of England was forced to sign the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215.
Annika Anderson & Ryan Buchalter
Role of God in government
People are supposed to honor God and be reverent to past fathers of the church like Stephen, Henry, Hugh, Walter, William, etc.
The people are granted the freedom of the Church’s elections, which is very important, and is also confirmed by the Pope of the time.
Separation of civil government and church government
If a man dies, his property shall be distributed amongst his near relatives and his friends, by view of the church.
Bible is the guideline for church and civil government
If a person borrows money from a Jew and he dies before he can repay, his family does not owe any interest on the debt. So people should act kind just as God did and not charge interest but only the fair amount.
In the same way, if a man dies owing money to a Jewish man, the wife owes nothing to the man.
Freedom of religion
People have been granted by God that “the English Church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished, and its liberties unimpaired.” (1)
“Wherefore we will and firmly decree that the English church shall be free.” (63)
John Adams born
Thomas Jefferson born
French & Indian War
John Locke publishes his Two Treatises on Government
Adam Smith writes "Wealth of Nations"
of Colonial Rights
Matthew 18:15-17 (NIV)
15 "If your brother sins against you, go and show him his fault, just between the two of you. If he listens to you, you have won your brother over.
16 But if he will not listen, take one or two others along, so that 'every matter may be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.'
17 If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, treat him as you would a pagan or a tax collector.
of Causes &
July: Proclamation of Rebellion
September: Proclamation for Repressing Rebellion & Sedition
July 2: resolution passed
July 4: Declaration approved
Settled: Jamestown, 1607
Became a royal colony, 1624
Goal: new lands to settle
Discovered Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland
Landed in Caribbean
Opened up the exploration of the New World
Goal: Find a western route to Asia and prove the world was round
1st permanent European settlement in North America:
St. Augustine, Florida (Spanish)
Settled: Plymouth, 1620
Absorbed by Massachusetts, 1691
Settled: Salem, 1628
Became a royal colony, 1686
Colony: Rhode Island
Settled: Providence, 1636
Settled: Hartford & Wethersfield, 1635-6
Colony: New Hampshire
Settled: Odiorne’s Point, 1632
Type: Proprietary under John Mason
Absorbed by Massachusetts, 1641
Separated into a royal colony, 1686
St. Mary’s, 1633
Proprietary (George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, then his son, Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore)
Settlers from Virginia moved south
Albermarie Sound, 1654
Charles Town (Charleston), 1690
Proprietary under 8 English noblemen, 1663
Separated into 2 colonies, 1712
Became royal colonies, 1729
Colony: New York
Ft. Orange, New Netherlands (Dutch), 1624
Conquered by English, 1664
Proprietary under the Duke of York
became a royal colony, 1702
Colony: New Jersey
Conquered by the English, 1664
Proprietary under John, Lord of Berkley & Sir George Catteret
became a royal colony, 1702
Ft. Christina (Wilmington), New Sweden, 1638
Annexed by New Netherlands, 1655
Conquered by the English, 1664
Proprietary under the Duke of York
Transferred to William Penn, 1682
Proprietary under William Penn
Proprietary under James Oglethorpe
Became a royal colony, 1751
Goal: Explore and claim passage to Asia through North America
Found Newfoundland (again) & New England
writes Summa Theologica
Augustine of Hippo writes "The City of God"
High Middle Ages
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Plato (428-348 BC) 380
Wrote The Republic in 380 BC
The Bible (c. 1500 BC to 95 AD)
Biblical Foundation of Western Civilization & Government
The Scientific Revolution
Kings & Queens of England
& the United Kingdom of Great Britain
European Colonization of North America
Roman Republic (c. 458-30 BC)
Democracy established in Athens (c. 508 BC)
Articles of Confederation