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Australia's role in providing humanitarian aid for world ord

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Sheryn Lee

on 30 March 2017

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Transcript of Australia's role in providing humanitarian aid for world ord

Understanding humanitarian aid
Delivering aid and assistance is becoming more complex due to blending of man-made and natural causes
UNTAC 1992-3
Civil war, Pol Pot regime, Khmer Rouge, and Vietnam invasion, culminated in 1991 Paris Peace Accords
Despite long history of success, humanitarian assistance and operations are decreasing - FY2015-16 7.4% decrease
Australia's History in
Providing Humanitarian Aid
the framework for Australia’s humanitarian action which is designed to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity during and in the aftermath of conflict, disasters and other humanitarian crises, as well as to prevent and strengthen preparedness for the occurrence of such situation
Comparing UNTAC and INTERFET
2001 Defense White Paper laid out 7 guidelines for peacekeeping operations of which can assess success
Australia's role in providing humanitarian aid for world order
Common objectives to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity
Can be viewed in multiple ways
Humanitarian emergencies: Natural disasters or conflicts related to political violence
Aid is also an instrument of donor state's foreign policy
Climate change: clear that the old distinction between man-made and natural causes is dissolving
Formulating responses are most effective when they target the causes (preventative), however, this depends on public appetite, amount of resources and funding i.e. becoming more difficult
Clear need for long-term development investments and consensus on vulnerable states
DFAT's Humanitarian Strategy:
Objectives:
1. Strengthen international humanitarian action
2. Reduce disaster risk
3. Support preparedness and effective response
4. Enable early recovery
Thematic Priorities:
1. Gender equality
2. Reproductive health
3. Disability inclusiveness
4. Protection
5. Private sector engagement
6. Monitoring and accountability
How does australia compare?
• United Nations Good Offices Committee Indonesia (UNGOC) 1947 - 1951
• United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) 1948 - 2014
• United Nations Military Observer Group India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 1948 - 1985
• Berlin, 1948-1949 (Berlin Airlift)
• United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 1948 - 1985
• United Nations Commission for Indonesia (UNCI) 1949 - 1950
• United Nations Commission on Korea (UNCOK) 1950
• United Nations Command Korea (UNC-K) 1950-1956
• United Nations Command Military Armistice Commission Korea (UNCMAC) 1953 - 2014
• United Nations Observer Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) 1958
• United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) 1960 - 1964
• United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) 1962 - 1963
• United Nations Yemen Observer Mission (UNYOM) 1963 - 1964
• United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) 1964 -
• United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM) 1965 - 1966
• United Nations Emergency Force Two (UNEF II) 1973 - 1979
• United Nations Disengagement Force (UNDOF) 1974 -
• Commonwealth Monitoring Force Rhodesia (CMFR) 1979 - 1980
• Commonwealth Military Training Team Uganda (CMTTU) 1982 - 1984
• Egypt [Sinai] (MFO), 1982-1986, 1993 -
• United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) 1988 - 1991
• Namibia (UNTAG), 1989-1990
• United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) 1989 - 1990
• Afghanistan/Pakistan (UNMCTT), 1989-1993

• Maritime Interception Force (MIF 1) 1990-1991
• International Kurdish Relief Operation 1991
• Cambodia (UNAMIC), 1991-1992
• UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) 1991 - 1998
• UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) 1991 - 1994
• Maritime Interception Force (MIF 2) 1991-2003
• Multinational Forces in Iraq - Kuwait 1991 MNF (I-K)
• United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) 1992 - 1994
• Somalia, 1992-1995
• United Nations Protection Force, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia (UNPROFOR) 1992 - 1995
• Cambodia (UNTAC), 1992-1993
• Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC) 1993 - 1997
• Rwanda (UNAMIR), 1993 - 1996
• United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) 1994 - 2004
• Haiti (MNF), 1994-1995
• PNG [Bougainville] (TMG), 1997-1998
• PNG [Bougainville] (PMG), 1998-2003
• Multinational Forces in Iraq - Kuwait 1998 Operation Pollard
• East Timor, 1999-2013
• Sierra Leone 2000-2003
• Solomon Islands (IPMT), 2000-2002
• United Nations Mission in Ethiopia/Eritrea (UNMEE) 2000 - 2008
• United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) 2002 – 2005
• Solomon Islands (RAMSI), 2003-2013
• United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) 2005 – 2011
• Indonesia, 2005 (Operation Sumatra Assist)
Humanitarian and peacekeeping operations are "less obvious" commitment than financing

Involves a resource every sovereign nation has - military and law enforcement apparatuses

Peacekeeping and humanitarian missions provide vital training and experience

Further a donor state's foreign policy and national security objectives
Aid to Asia cut by 40%, however, Pacific was largely spared due to "arc of instability
Aid is a significant component of a nation's soft power and emerging donors are increasing expenditure e.g. China and UAE
Australia's reductions in assistance means
less influence and involvement
Australia played 3 major roles to the peace process and the peacekeeping operation
Mandate to bring peace to Cambodia, monitor ceasefire, and organize and assist in new electoral/democratic processes
Involved ADF, AFP, AEC and human rights workers - still remain committed to Cambodia's development
INTERFET 1999
30 Aug 1999: vote of self-determination followed by series of violent clashes
Within 2 weeks, under command of ADF (Cosgrove), INTERFET deployed to restore peace, facilitate humanitarian assistance, handover to UNTAET
Australia remains one of largest donors to Timor-Leste, however, it has evolved into problematic relationship
Contestation over maritime demarcations of oil and gas reserves, of which Australia currently benefits
Both considered major successes due to fast and firm commitment of Australian resources to lead coalition, despite the different type of operations, different time periods, and levels of Australian involvement
Both operations involved extensive regional and global participation
Both operations received adequate levels of funding to sustain peacekeeping operations and consolidate on successes
Nation-building responsibilities are most difficult, and handed over to UN agencies
Both operations less successful in transferring military security to (local) law enforcement
Capacity to transfer from military to civilian control even more complex - measures are required to manage political and economic affairs in transitional government arrangements
Success of missions has momentum
UNTAC -- INTERFET -- UNTAET
Many nations participate to increase their operational experience
Australian humanitarian operations in the region have been very successful, however our commitments are now decreasing despite global demands increasing
Sheryn Lee
Department of Security Studies
and Criminology
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