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Networking American Journal of Psychology, 1887-1903

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Christopher Green

on 11 June 2013

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Transcript of Networking American Journal of Psychology, 1887-1903

Networking American
Journal of Psychology
1887-1903 Christopher D. Green Background
- How do we divide up early American
psychology to better understand it?
- Conventionally, we talk about different "schools"
of psychology:
Structuralism (Titchener@Cornell)
Functionalism (Dewey, Angell@Chicago,
Cattell@Columbia)
Behaviorism (Watson@Johns Hopkins)

- Problems: This privileges psychologists who
"declared" for particular schools over those who did not.
- But there were many important psychologists who
did not belong to a school. Indeed important whole areas
of psychological research (e.g., color vision) did not
lend themselves to a particular "school."

- So, how do we divide up early American psychology to
make it easier to interpret, but more inclusively, without
filtering out so much important information as the
"schools" approach does? Hall's Reviews of the Current
Psychological Literature Qualitative Psychology Brain &
Neurology Conclusions
- Hall was able to "weld" together a number of distinct research
communities with relatively independent interests in order
to create the "critical mass" necessary for an American
psychology journal.
- Prior to the launch of AJP, much American psychological work
(both experimental and philosophical) had been published
in the British journal Mind.
- Hall accomplished this synthesis by (as is well known)
drawing on individuals of diverse interests who were
close to him personally, often students and former students.
- This tactic, however, excluded many American psychologists,
and led to the launch of AJP's chief competitor,
Psychological Review. AJP, vols. 6-9 (1893-1898) AJP, vols. 1-5
(1887-1893) "Attention & distraction" [distraction] [distraction] [attention] [distraction] "Attention: Experimental & critical" "Dev't of visual perception & attention" "Conditions of mental activity" [cross-sensory reactions] [association & interference] [imagination] [rhythm] "Effect of forced respiration on
psychical and physical activity" "Sensory & muscular
reactions" "Two-points in reaction
time experiments" Cognition "Early sense of self" "Fears" "Psychophysiology of
the moral imperative" "Objective study of
moral judgments" "Conversion" [religious] "Psychology of religious
phenomena" "The new life" [religion] "Psychology of religion" "Old age & death" "Sex & art" "Dendropsychoses" [attachment to trees] "Puzzles... mental
adaptation" [children's activities] [tickling & laughing] "Growth of children" "Genesis of number forms" Religion &
Morality Child Development [attention] [sensori-motor] "Synaesthesia" [psychic effects
of weather] [color/children] [color/children] "Color saturation" "Tints & shades" "Color surfaces" "Light intens.
& depth percep." "Fechner's
paradoxon" [eye movements] [Lab course IV:
monoc. vision] [Lab course V:
visual percep.] [Movement
in vision] [retinal image] "Vernier chronoscope" "New apparatus" Vision [color] [psychophysical vocabulary] [psychophysical measurement] "Optical illusion" "Cutaneous estimation" "Cutaneous sensibility" "Psychology of touch" "Optical illusion" [psychophysics] [illusions of
weight/space] "Localization of
cutaneous impressions" [space distances/
arm movements] Touch [apperception] [recognition/
perception] "Language of childhood" "Mediate association" [reading] "Motor phenomena of mental effort" "Individual psychology" Name? Conclusions
- Hall had to respond to the 1894 launch of
Psychological Review: Vol. 7 (1895) Hall brought on
Sanford and Titchener as co-editors plus nine
"cooperating editors."
- Vision remained a strong community.
- "General Experimental Psych" absorbed cognition,
and began to differentiate into distinct communities.
- "Qualitative Psych" narrowed its focus on to child
development and religion/morality. General
philosophy of mind faded from view (temporarily).
- Brain/neurology & psychiatry left AJP for other venues.
- Still, Hall was able hold together a broad "federation"
of researchers of diverse interests. The modern
configuration of the discipline of "Psychology" was
beginning to take shape. [Toronto lab] [Göttingen lab] [various German labs] [lab equipment] [European phil.
& psych. courses] [Exptl psych
@ Wellesley] [Oxford phil.] [Wales phil.] [Edinburgh phil.] Labs & Courses (links ≥ .33) Vision "Color-hearing" "Chromaesthesia" Lab course V:
vision (cont'd) "Chromaesthesia" [color contrast] "Horopter" Lab course V:
vision "legibility of
small letters" "curious visual
phonomenon" "Wisconsin studies" "Wisconsin studies" "Critique of psycho-physical methods" [mem. & assoc.] } "Personal
equation" "Attention" "Errors of observation" "Clark studies" Lab course I [kinaesthetic space percetion] "star magnitudes" General Exptl.
Psychology "Psychology of time" "Memory, historically
and experimentally considered" "Visualization in Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, & Hume" "Psych. foundations
of natural realism" "Statistics of dreams" "Study of dreams" [metatheory/philosophy] [psychiatry] [cognition] [paranoia] [paranoia] "Insanity of doubt" "Modern literature"* "Contemporary
psychologists" [Hist. of psych./Greek] [electrical stim.
of ganglions] [brain of Laura
Bridgman] "Neurology &
psychology" [cerebral localization] [reflex action] [size of cranial nerves] "Automatic muscular movements/insane" "tickling, laughing, & the comic" "Rapidity of voluntary movements" "Pressue sense/ear drum/'facial vision'" AJP, vols. 10-14 (1898-1903) "Rhythm, time, & number" "Memory image/fidelity" Memory image/judgment/
discrim. of clangs & tones" Discrimination/
clangs & tones "Pitch discrimination" "Psych. of music" "Psych. of rhythm" "Estim./time intervals" "Clicks & flashes" "Atten./musical tones" "Time judgment" "Rhythm" "Individual psychology" "Recognition" "Memory" "Amnesia" "Mental standards of length" "Rhythm & meter" "Mental images" "Attention" "Learning" "Fatigue" "Motor power/intelligence" "Visualization" Cognition Music "Attention" "Attention" "Apperception/sentence" "Reading" "Reading" "Individual psych." "Communication" "Movements/larynx" Language [depth perception] "Sense perception" "Synaesthesia" "Color illusion" "Chromaesthesia" "Class experiments &
demo. apparatus" [Lab equipment] "Fechner's colors" "Color tones" Vision "Binoocular vision" "Synthetic experiment" [color] "Daily life of a protozoan" "Comparative movements/
adults & children" "Judgments of size/
familiar objects" "Romanes' idea of
mental development" "Psychic life
in protozoa" "Quarter-century of
psycology in America" "Apperception/insanity" "Genesis of social
consciousness" "Mental arrangment" "Habit" "Subconscious" "Idealism" "Deception
& reality" "Religious emotion" "Religious revivial" "Death" Psych'l necessity
of religion" "Aesthetics/ethics/
Shaftesbury" "Faith cures" Philosophical
& Theoretical
Psychology [religion] "Rudiments of morality"
. [in animals] Comparative "Mental growth & decay"
. [childhood & old age] "Migratory impulse"
. [tadpoles] "Lab courses/comparative psych." [monkeys] [rats] [rats] "methods of animal psych." [rats] [perch] "Conjuring deceptions" "Anger" [in ancient lit.] . "Hydro-psychoses"
[influence of water on mental life] "Gambling impulse" "Protozoan" "Weber's law/smell" "Habits of fishes" [alcohol] "creeping & walking" "Love betw. sexes" [bird-lover] "Psych. of football" "Darwin/mental dev't" Ingo Feinerer York University, Toronto, Canada Vienna University of Technology, Austria Thank You!

Acknowledgments:
* Collaboration of my colleagues & students at the
York Digital History of Psychology Laboratory:
The PsyBorgs!
* Financial support of the Social Sciences &
Humanties Research Council of Canada.

christo@yorku.ca Conclusions
- Vision remained a bedrock community.
- Cognition continued to diversify, sprouting distinct
music and language communities.
- Philosophical psych became more robust again,
including topics beyond religion/morality.
- Comparative psychology (mostly animal, but also
children & culture) was added to Hall's
"federation" of interests
- The "shape" of disciplinary psychology continues to
evolve at the start of the 20th century as old
interest faded and new interests developed, but
Hall and AJP were able to change with them. Methodological Appendix
- Electronic copies of all American Journal of Psychology
"full articles" (~750/2861=26%)
Thank you JSTOR!!
- All trivial "function" words were deleted (~400 types).
- ~20,000 "content" word types were retained.
- Each article was converted to a vector in ~20,000-dimensional
space based on which of the content words appeared in it.
("bag of words").
- Cosine similarities were calculated between each pair of
articles -- essentially a Pearson correlation coefficient.
(Used the "tm" module in R.)
- Similarity matrix was input to network software (Gephi)
- All similarity coefficients less than 0.33 were deleted.
(418 remained, 7.23% among 108 nodes, for v. 1-5)
- Network laid out using Force Atlas algorithm.
repulsion=10,000; gravity=100
- Avg. degree=7.741, Avg. weighted degree=3.289,
diameter=7, avg. path length=2.844
- Communities idntified using "modularity" algorithm
(randomize=on, resolution=1.0, modularity=.491).
- Set label size to weighted degree. Set color to community.
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