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Sci 8- Unit 2 -Topics 4-7
Transcript of Sci 8- Unit 2 -Topics 4-7
Fluid Movement in Cells
Diffusion Osmosis Transpiration
- The diffusion will take place
until the concentration of
solute is the same throughout
- Water particles are small, so they
can pass through membranes where
other particles may not be able to.
- The loss of water from a plant through
evaporation. This water is lost through
Cells are specialized, so they can perform
Like an orchestra
many types of specialized cells to function.
Type of Cell Shape (Structure) Function
Muscle Elongated and tapered Move parts of the body
on either end
Skin Flat and thin, brick Fit closely together to form a
shaped or honeycomb continuous protective layer
Nerve Long branched fibres To carry nerve signals from
running from the main one part of the body to another
part of the cell
Blood Thin, disc-like Carry oxygen in the bloodstream
(giving them a large surface area
to collect oxygen)
Bone Thick, mineral matrix To provide support
The Digestive System
(Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, large intestine, small intestine, rectum)
Food enters your body through the mouth and then passes to the stomach and intestines.
It is broken down along the way into usable, soluble particles that can be used by different cells
The Respiratory System
(larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, lungs, alveolus, diaphragm)
Breathing (the exchange of gases) movesair in (inhalation) and out (expiration) of our bodies.
The Circulatory System
(heart, blood, arteries, veins, capillaries)
Transports food and gases throughout our body.
Oxygenated blood travels through the arteries to
the body to supply O2 and nutrients.
Wastes (CO2 and waste) are taken back to the heart through veins.
Transfer of nutrients, waste, and O2 takes place in the lungs and intestine
in the capillaries.
Here are the key pointers if you didn't think about it with a partner...
The respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide,
while the circulatory system transports those gases throughout the body.
The interaction between these two systems happens in the tissues of the lungs
Diffusion occurs between the alveoli and the capillaries
Oxygen goes from the alveoli to the capillaries and CO2 goes from the capillaries to the alveoli
Here's the key points:....
The transfer of food particles, takes place at the inner lining of the small intestine, through millions of tiny, finger-like projections, called villi.
The villi absorb the food particles from the capillaries and then transport the nutrients to the cells, to be used as fuel.
Side note... Please copy down table 2.1 on p. 153
of your textbook and 2.2 on p. 155. You will be thankful you did ;)
Common disorders of the major systems:
Digestive: Colon Cancer, Ulcers, indigestion
Starch and sugars are carbohydrates and provide the body with its main source of energy. Fats are also essential in our diet, providing us with energy and cushioning the internal organs from shock. Proteins are essential for growth and repair of bare also needed for good health.
Things you can do to avoid these disorders... eat fresh fruits and veggies, breads, meat and dairy according to Canada Food Guide, avoid, deep fried food and fast food, drink lots of water, not pop or energy drinks
Respiratory: Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, lung cancer, mucus build-up, cilia depletion
Things you can do to avoid these disorders... don't smoke, exercise regularly, change furnace filters, clean house
The Excretory System
Filters waste materials from the blood.
Ciculatory: High Blood Pressure, heart attacks, strokes
The device used to measure blood pressure is called a
sphygmomanometer (an inflatable cuff wrapped around the arm, with a
pump attached – which is used to inflate it). The blood flow is slowed and
then listened to by a doctor, with a stethoscope.
Blood pressure indicates:
• The volume of blood
• Heart rate
• Artery size
• Artery elasticity
• Blood viscosity
Things you can do to avoid these disorders... Sleep, eat well, don't smoke, exercise, laugh often
Created by: Steve Langer 2010
Edited by : Kyle Swenson 2011
eg. When you put food
colouring into water, it will
spread out evenly throughout
Eg. When you put a limp carrot stick
in water, it will become crisp again.
- The movement of particles
from an area of high
concentration to low
- The diffusion of water through a
selectively permeable membrane
- Guard cells surround the stomata and
can open or close them to regulate oxygen,
carbon dioxide, and water in the plant.
- Water travels from the roots and travels
through the shoot system (xylem tissues
transport water, phloem tissues
transport sugars) and then leaves through
So what's the difference between epithelial
tissue and epidermal tissue?
Epithelial tissue protects the outside
of a human body (skin) and epidermal
tissue protects the outside of a plant
So, you've sorted out the parts of cells...
Let's take a look at TISSUES!!!
From a medical perspective, specialized cells create us our specialized tissues! These are important!
The Advantages of Being Multi-cellular ….. Size ….. Versatility
Multi-cellular organisms can:
- live in a wide variety of environments
- grow very large
- obtain their energy from a wide variety of foods
- have complex bodies
- specialize functions and work in harmony with other cells
The picture of the plant here
is closely related to what
system of the human body?
talk to the person next to you
and see if you both agree...
This song will be on the test...
How do the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems Connect?
with a partner, talk about how these two systems connect, then write down your answers in your notes. (you have 2 mins)
How does the Digestive and Circulatory Systems Connect ?
think about it, write it down...
The Sensory Awareness System
Allows each of the systems of the body to respond to changing conditions and make adjustments in order to maintain a stable internal environment, allowing the cells to function properly.
- Quivering muscles generate heat
- 90% of heat loss is through the skin (most of the rest is through the lungs)
- Hairs on the skin stand on end when the tiny muscle cells near the surface contract, creating ‘ gooseflesh ‘ (goosebumps)
- Fluffing body hair (in animals with thick fur) reduces heat loss by improving insulation
- Feeling flushed (red and hot) happens because tiny blood vessels
in the skin expand, which increases blood flow
- Sweating helps cool down your body as moisture evaporates from the skin surface
END of UNIT 2!
Please Read this.
Write it down if you want to.
add this to your notes