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Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle

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by

Josh Elliott

on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle

Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle
The Cell Cycle
The cell cycle is a sequence of growth and division that is made up of
three
phases
Chromosomes
are carriers of genetic material (DNA)
Chromosomes
Chromosomes are actually just
one "line"
until they are copied (replicated)
Interphase
Interphase is time
BETWEEN
cell division, made of
3
subphases
Mitosis
The
nuclear division
of a cell
Structure of a Chromosome
Chromosomes have several important structures
Chromosomes spend most of their time in the form of
uncoiled chromatin
Chromatin
is a long strand of DNA that is wrapped around proteins called
histones
However, chromosomes must condense
before
the nucleus divides.
You have
46
Chromosomes
23 from mom
23 from dad
(if you are human)
When chromosomes condense they look like this
Copied chromosomes are known as
replicated
chromosomes. They look like
an 'X'
The two chromatids next to each other are known as
sister

chromatids
. They contain
the same
information.
Most chromosomes have 2 arms; one short, one long
Short arm =
p-arm

("petite" arm)
Long arm =
q-arm

(because it's the letter after 'p', clever, right?)
A centromere holds sister chromatids
together
; it is also where
spindle fibers
attach during mitosis
Metacentric
- the centromere is located in the center of the chromosome
Submetacentric
- slightly away form center
Acrocentric
-located toward one end of the chromosome
Telocentric
-located on one end of the chromosome
Interphase
(Growth)
Mitosis
(nuclear division)
Cytokinesis
(cytoplasmic division)
Cytokinesis
Process in which a cell's
cytoplasm
divides
G1 or "
Gap 1
" is a period of rapid growth
for the cell. The cell carries out its normal function during this phase.
S-phase or
Synthesis phase
is when DNA is synthesized and replicated
G2 or "
Gap 2
" is when the centrioles replicate and the cell prepares to begin division
*DNA has to be uncoiled to replicate*
Centrioles
are small, dark, cylindrical structures made of microtubules
There are
four
phases in mitosis
1st and longest phase of mitosis
Chromatin
coils up to make a visible chromosome
2nd phase
3rd phase
Sister chromatids are
pulled apart
as the spindle fibers shorten
4th phase
Sister chromatids reach
opposite
sides of the cell
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
The nuclear envelope begins to
dissolve
Centrioles
begin moving to opposite ends of the cell
Spindle fibers
form between the centrioles
-long, thin fibers made
of microtubules
Replicated
chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers
Chromosomes

align along the
mid-line/equator
of the cell
Each sister chromatid's centromere is
attached to its own spindle fiber
*this is how each new cell will recieve its own complete set of chromosomes*
Chromatids begin to unravel back into
chromatin
**Common
Misconception**
Spindle fibers break down and
nuclear envelope
reappears
The cell forms a
cleavage furrow
Cleavage means to separate or divide.
Furrow means trench or groove.
*This literally is the formation of a groove that will cause the cell to divide in half*
The original cell cleaves into two identical daughter cells
A brief review
Full transcript