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Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle
Transcript of Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle
The Cell Cycle
The cell cycle is a sequence of growth and division that is made up of
are carriers of genetic material (DNA)
Chromosomes are actually just
until they are copied (replicated)
Interphase is time
cell division, made of
of a cell
Structure of a Chromosome
Chromosomes have several important structures
Chromosomes spend most of their time in the form of
is a long strand of DNA that is wrapped around proteins called
However, chromosomes must condense
the nucleus divides.
23 from mom
23 from dad
(if you are human)
When chromosomes condense they look like this
Copied chromosomes are known as
chromosomes. They look like
The two chromatids next to each other are known as
. They contain
Most chromosomes have 2 arms; one short, one long
Short arm =
Long arm =
(because it's the letter after 'p', clever, right?)
A centromere holds sister chromatids
; it is also where
attach during mitosis
- the centromere is located in the center of the chromosome
- slightly away form center
-located toward one end of the chromosome
-located on one end of the chromosome
Process in which a cell's
G1 or "
" is a period of rapid growth
for the cell. The cell carries out its normal function during this phase.
is when DNA is synthesized and replicated
G2 or "
" is when the centrioles replicate and the cell prepares to begin division
*DNA has to be uncoiled to replicate*
are small, dark, cylindrical structures made of microtubules
phases in mitosis
1st and longest phase of mitosis
coils up to make a visible chromosome
Sister chromatids are
as the spindle fibers shorten
Sister chromatids reach
sides of the cell
The nuclear envelope begins to
begin moving to opposite ends of the cell
form between the centrioles
-long, thin fibers made
chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers
align along the
of the cell
Each sister chromatid's centromere is
attached to its own spindle fiber
*this is how each new cell will recieve its own complete set of chromosomes*
Chromatids begin to unravel back into
Spindle fibers break down and
The cell forms a
Cleavage means to separate or divide.
Furrow means trench or groove.
*This literally is the formation of a groove that will cause the cell to divide in half*
The original cell cleaves into two identical daughter cells
A brief review