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The United Nations

Presentation for my English class about the United Nations
by

Moritz von Schwartzenberg

on 23 May 2018

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Transcript of The United Nations

The United Nations
Member states
History
Funding
Structure
6 Principle Organs
Critique
Purposes
- Headquarters: on "International Territory" in New York
Definition:
The state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
Other Examples:
military bases of foreign countries
embassies
- Official Languages: 1. Arabic
2. Chinese
3. English
4. French
5. Russian
6. Spanish
1910
1930
2000
1950
1940
1960
1970
1980
1990
2010
28. June 1919:
Establishment of the "League of Nations" through the Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations
United Nations
The four (official) main purposes:
To keep peace throughout the world;
To develop friendly relations among nations;
To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms;
To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.
How does the UN try to achieve those goals?
United Nations
General Assembly
Security Council
Economic and Social Council
Secretariat
International Court of Justice
Trusteeship Council
all member states are represented
main deliberative organ

15 members
5 permanents
Power over Peace- keeping forces
suspended in 1994
runs the United Nations
comprises the Secretary General
54 members
often works together with the General Assembly
coordinates work with Specialized Agencies (i.a. ILO, UNESCO, WHO)
15 judges
settles disputes between states
Subsidiary Bodies
Advisory Subsidiary Body
Programmes and Funds
Research and Training Institutes
Other Entities
Subsidiary Bodies
Specialized Agencies
Subsidiary Bodies
Departments and Offices
Resolutions of either the General Assembly, or the Economic and Social Council
Resolutions passed by the Security Council
Advice
Duty
CAN
MUST
What happens if the goals are endangered by actions of a state or through conflicts and disputes between states?
Pacific solution:
Solution with armed forces:
Interruption of:
economic relations
communication
severance of diplomatic relations
Demonstrations
Blockade
Other operations by air, sea, or land forces
Not all the people are Represented
The UN from its start was a collective of countries run by kings, dictators, monopoly-clad political parties
Influenced by corporations
Establishment of an "elite"
Nuclear Power
Permanent seats in the
Security Council
Veto power
Secret meetings
Problems with the peacekeeping forces:
Communication problems
Problems with the inner structure
Too bureaucratic
28.07.1914:World War I
11.04.1919:
International Labour Organisation (ILO)
15.11.1920:
First meeting
29.04.1920:
Sir James Eric Drummont
27.03.1933:
Japan leaves
19.09.1933:
Germany leaves
11.12.1937:
Italy leaves
14.12.1939:
USSR leaves
1920
20.04.1946:
Closure
01.01.1942:
26 governments signed the "Declaration of Human Rights"
24.10.1945:
Ratification of the UN Charter
-> United Nations Day
10.01.1946:
First General Assembly (GA)
17.01.1946:
Security Council meets for the first time
24.01.1946:
First resolution adopted by the GA
02.07.2010:
Establishment of the "UN Women"
15.03.2006:
Establishment of the Human Rights Council
05.09.1994: International Conference on Population and Development
03.06.1992: UN Conference on Environment and Development ("Earth Summit")
01.02.1946-02.02.1952:
Tygve Lie
10.04.1953-18.09.1961:
Dag Hammerskjöd
03.11.1961-31.12.1971:
Sithu U Thant
01.01.1971-31.12.1981:
Kurt Waldheim
01.01.1982-31.12.1991:
Javier Péres de Cuéllar
01.01.1992-31.12.1996:
Boutros Boutros-Ghali
01.01.1997-31.12.2006:
Kofi Annan
01.01.2007- :
Ban Ki-moon
02.09.1990:
Convention on the Rights of the Child
02.08.1990:
Iraq gets expelled from the UN
25.11.1981:
Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination Based on Religion or Believe
June 1972:
First UN Environment Conference
04.01.1969:
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discriminationaa
16.10.1963:
Establishment of the World Foot Programme (WFP)
05.11.1956:
Establishment of the UN Emergency Force (UNEF)
09.01.1952:
UN Headquarters building
27.06.1950:
First military action of the "Blue Helmets"
07.04.1948:
Establishment of the World Health Organisation (WHO)
May 1948:
First Peacekeeping operation by United Nations Troop Supervision Organisation (UNTSO)
10.12.1948:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
09.04.1949:
First Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ)
11.12.1946:
Establishment of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
-51 original UN members
-GA decides who is allowed to join
-193 Member states today
-Germany: 18.09.1973
-1960: addition of 17 members
-2011: South Sudan
-Non-member States:
Vatican City (observer status)
Palestine (observer status)
Taiwan
Kosovo
Western Sahara
Observer States= Non-member states with invitation to participate as observers in the sessions of the UN-bodies (not allowed to vote)
Germany: 8,018 % (USA: 22%; Japan: 12,53%) in 2011
Compulsory contributions of member states (general operations and peacekeeping):
contributions depend on the member‘s economic strenght
GA decides about every member‘s contribution ($5 billion for peacekeeping in 2005/ 2006)
voluntary donations of member states for special programs (UNICEF, WFP etc.)
Ceiling rate: 22% of UN budget
Minimum amount: 0,001% of UN budget
Private donations:
John D. Rockefeller, Jr.: $8.5 billion for UN headquarter
Resolution:
concerning one topic
basis of discussion
states the current situation
demands/recommends actions
Definition:
The state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
Other examples:
military bases of foreign countries
embassies
Thank you for your attention!
(Most) Sources:
anunitedworld.net
fas.org
lovearth.net
muntr.org
nationsencyclopedia.com
peacewomen.org
rmit.edu.au
un.org
wikipedia.org
wordpress.com
worldometers.info
No separation of Powers
Full transcript