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Cartography

2013.04.02
by

Patricia Chen

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of Cartography

mapping = + to write paper cartography Cartography reflects the state of culture activity.
Cartography reflects the perception of the world in different periods.
Cartography tells information about preliterate time. Why is cartography important? The Babylonian clay tablet, Sixth century BC the oldest world map known to us The oldest

2500 B.C

Harvard museum

Map of preflood edenic valley Akkadian map found in Nuzi(ancient Mesopotamian city) The oldest map that survived Maps of classical antiquity

Cartography during middle ages

Cartography during renaissance

Cartography after scientific revolution Outline Antique cartography Ancient Greek Eratosthenes
276-194 BC Herodotus
484-425 BC Anaximander
610-546 BC Ancient Greek Anaximander was the first to publish a map of the world.

 Anaximander most likely drew this map for three reasons:

 1. To improve navigation and trade between Miletus's colonies
and other colonies around the Mediterranean Sea
and Black Sea. 

 2. For the sake of knowledge.

3.  to convince the Ionian city-states to join
in a federation in order to push the 
Median threat away if he possessed
such a tool. Anaximander Use bematists, or pacer to produce estimates of distances traveled. Herodotus enlarged the world to the Greeks by the travels toward northern India Alexander the Great. The world according to Herodotus Herodotus latitude longitude Reconstruction of Eratosthenes' map of the known world Eratosthenes Eratoshenes was the first person to use the word "geography" in Greek and he invented the discipline of geography as we understand it. 
He invented a system of latitude and  longitude.
He was the first person to calculate the 
circumference of the earth. Illustration showing a portion of the globe showing a part of the African continent.
The sun beams shown as 2 rays hitting earth at Syene and Alexandria.
Angle of sun beam and the gnomons (vertical sticks) is shown at Alexandria which
allowed Eratosthenes' estimates of radius and circumference of Earth. Cartographia Two parts: Book 1, a discussion of the data and of the methods used
Books 2–5 an atlas.

Principles of mapping

Use coordination, latitude and longitude

Improve projection Claudius Ptolemy Ptolemy’s world map Began with the a collapse of the Roman Empire (5th~15th)

Decline of Science-"The lamp of scientific knowledge was obscured by the light of religious ecstasy“

Modern scientific cartography and higher civilisation was maintained in the arabic (and Chinese) world and through navigators. Cartography in Medieval Europe Medieval European map of the world

Medieval Latin words-mappa (cloth or chart) and mundi (of the world).

Approximately 1100 Mappa Mundi have survived from middle ages Mappa Mundi Zonal maps

T-O maps

Quadripartite maps

Complex maps Type of Mappa Mundi Macrobian world map Pictures of the East Hemisphere
5 climate zones : the northern frigid zone, the northern temperate zone, the equatorial tropical zone, the southern temperate zone, the southern frigid zone Zonal Maps(Macrobian) T-O map from the Etymologiae of Isidorus, 1472   illustrate only the habitable portion of the world known in Roman and medieval times
The landmass was illustrated as a circle (an "O") divided into three portions by a "T“ T and O Maps Mix the Zonal and T-O maps.
Four continents, three known and one unknown.
The missions of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.(十二門徒) Quadripartite or Beatus maps Beatus Map Drawn by the Spanish monk Beatus of Liébana
Based on Saint Isidore of Seville(塞爾維亞大主教), Ptolemy and the Holy Bible.
Not to depict a exact depiction of the world, but to illustrate the history of Bible. The vault(拱頂) of heaven
Water masses: upper (rain) and lower (river, stream and ocean).
The sheol 陰間 (dwelling of the dead)
The three known continents. Shem(閃族祖先), Ham and Japheth(印歐祖先), the three sons of Noah(諾亞). World view
in the Middle Ages Mediterranean 地中海 (Europe-Africa)
Nile River 尼羅河 (Africa-Asia)
Bosporus and the Aegean Sea 博斯普魯斯海峽&愛琴海 (Europe-Asia)
Center of the world: Jerusalem 耶路撒冷
Equatorial ocean 赤道洋 (Antipodes) more detailed than T-O maps
Stories from history, the Bible and classical mythology
Knowledge from Roman and Greek texts Complex maps Photo of a reproduction of the Ebstorf Map
3.5 meters (11 ft) across -- “was” the largest
Destroyed in World War II Hereford map
1.5 meters (4.9 ft) across -- the largest till now Psalter(詩篇) world map
Drawn around 1260 A.D.
Salvation(救贖) history Anglo-Saxon Cotton world map
Drawn between 1025 ~ 1050 A.D. Henry of Mainz world map
Drawn around 1110 A.D.
Detail of Middle East Polychronicon of Ranulf Higden
universal history and theology
seven days of Genesis (創世紀) The Rediscovery of Ptolemy and Cartography in Renaissance in Europe
The transmission and translation of Ptolemy’s Geographia
The invention of printing in Europe
The Age of Exploration
The new projection methods The Rediscovery of Ptolemy and Cartography in Renaissance in Europe The Rediscovery of Ptolemy The manuscripts of Ptolemy’s Geographia reached Italy and by 1410 were translated into Latin in Florence.
The starting point and the model against which progress in geographical discovery came to be measured. The important of printing in cartography:
1. Reduction of cost of maps.
2. Increase the ability to produce essentially identical copies.
The first European printed maps date from the last three decades of the fifteenth century.
Woodcut  Copper engraving
Two-color printing show up  Three-color The invention of printing in Europe The Ulm edition of Ptolemy’s world map A form of expression of map’s development.

Becoming popular. Globe the Age of Discovery

15th century --the 17th century

Portuguese and Spanish long-distance maritime travels in search of alternative trade routes to "the East Indies

European exploration allowed the global mapping of the world, resulting in a new world-view and distant civilizations acknowledging each other, reaching the most remote boundaries much later. Cartography in the Age of Exploration 15th century:  
Nicholas Germanus wrote a pioneering Cosmographia.
Germanus invented the Donis map projection
(1492)Martin Behaim made the oldest surviving terrestrial globe, but it lacked the Americas. Age of Exploration an explorer, navigator, and colonizer
born in northwestern Italy
completed four voyages
Opened a route across the Atlantic to the Americas
The New World Christopher Columbus referred to Western Hemisphere, specifically the ”Americas”
originated in the early 16th century
expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the European Middle Ages
Americas "fourth part of the world". The New World Juan de la Cosa
Sailed with Columbus
created the first known cartographic representations showing both the Americas as well as Africa and Eurasia. First map of the “Americas” The first map showing the Americas the first scientific world map
delineates very precisely the coasts of Central and South America
the real extension of the Pacific Ocean
the North American coast as a continuous one Diogo Ribeiro map(1572) Flemish cartographer
invented a new projection, called the Mercator projection
more accurate maps for world-wide navigation than any until that date
He was the first to use the term Atlas for a collection of maps. Gerardus Mercator(1512–1594) he worked with Gemma Frisius and Gaspar Myrica from 1535 to 1536 to construct a terrestrial globe
encouraged Abraham Ortelius to compile the first modern world atlas –Theatrum Orbis Terrarum – in 1570.
Mercator learnt globe making from Gemma Frisius and went on to become the leading European globe maker of the age. Gerardus Mercator 1570: Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius published the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, the first modern atlas.
1608: Captain John Smith published a map of Virginia's coastline.
1670s: The astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini began work on the first modern topographic map in France Ortelius and the first atlas (Ptolemy)
Contarini, 1506
Ruysch, 1507
Waldseemuller, 1507
Roseelli, 1508
Maggioli Azimuthal, 1511
Cordiform, Werner, 1514
Juan Vespucci, 1524
Mercator Double Cordiform, 1538
Agnese, 1542
Mercator, 1569 The new projection methods Ruysch maps was found earlier than Contarini maps
similar fan-shaped projection
difference
C: North Pole
R: meridians north of 70⁰N The new projection methods-
Contarini, 1506& Ruysch, 1507 Ptolemaic- type maps
showing two separated parts of the New World(north and south)
the first dated map on which south America appears The new projection methods-Waldseemuller, 1507 the evolution of projection-Cordiform, Werner, 1514 The new projection methods-Waldseemuller, 1507 Birth Certification of America an oval projection
Showing the whole globe with the Antarctic Circle and South Pole The new projection methods-
Roseelli, 1508 a new, polar azimuthal(方位角) projection
the Old and New worlds connected across the North Pole
the evolution of projection-Juan Vespucci, 1524 The new projection methods-
Maggioli Azimuthal, 1511 Northern and Southern Hemisphere
equator, tropical, Arctic, Antarctic circles indicated and named The new projection methods-
Juan Vespucci, 1524 ovoid(卵圓形) projection The new projection methods-
Agnese, 1542 the evolution of projection from Cordiform, Werner, 1514
the first map to apply the name America to the North American continent as well as to South America and to differentiate North and South America as separate continents The new projection methods-
Mercator Double Cordiform, 1538 a cylindrical projection, a solution for representing loxodromes(等方位線) on maps
extreme distortion
charts with graticules(標線) on which a compass line intersects each meridian(經線) at a constant The new projection methods-
Mercator, 1569 Cartography in
Scientific Revolution Mathemetics

Physics

Astronomy

Biology

Medicine

Chemistry Cartography in Scientific Revolution Typography(印刷術) Improvement in instuments For measuring the the angle between two object. Sextant(六分儀) Theodolite(經緯儀) Nicolas Sanson Giovanni Domenico Cassini
(June 8, 1625 - September 14, 1712) Topographic map
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