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Ecology Part II - ADV BIO

class notes for Madison Plains HS

Sara Ellenberger

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of Ecology Part II - ADV BIO

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Ecology Part II - ADV BIO C. Restoring Ecosystems
1. the larger the affected area the longer it takes to recover
a. natural vs. human-made 3. Biodiversity hot spots
a. endemic species – found only in a specific geographic area

4. corridors between habitats
a. improve survival of biodiversity
b. creates land that can contain larger variety of species and variety of genetic variation 7. Introduced species – nonnative species that are transported to a new habitat
a. reproduce in large numbers because lack of predators and then become invasive species 6. Pollution – changes the composition of air, soil and water
a. threatens biodiversity and global stability
b. biological magnification – increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain/web 4. Habitat loss
a. habitat is destroyed or disrupted and native species has to relocate or will die
b. destruction of habitat – direct impact on global biodiversity
Ex. Clearing of tropical rain forest
c. disruption of habitat – declining population of one species can affect an entire ecosystem 2. mass extinction - event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a short period of time 3. aesthetic and scientific value
a. beautiful landscape
b. interesting to study / research 2. indirect economic value
Healthy biosphere provides many inexpensive services to humans

a. green plants – provide oxygen (O2) and remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from atmosphere
b. preserve fertile soils
c. provide drinking water B. Importance of Biodiversity
1. direct economic value
a. food
b. clothing
c. energy
d. medicine
e. shelter 2. species diversity – number of different species and how many of each species there are
a. increases as you go from polar region to equator
3. ecosystem diversity – variety of ecosystems present in the biosphere A. Biodiversity – the variety of life in an area that is determined by the number of different species in that area
Increases stability of an ecosystem
Extinction – last member of a species dies open ocean ecosystems:
2. photic zone – shallow enough that sunlight is able to penetrate
3. aphotic zone – sunlight is unable to penetrate
4. benthic zone – area along ocean floor that consists of sand, silt & dead organisms
5. abyssal zone – deepest region of ocean
6. costal ocean & coral reefs – sensitive to changes in the environment, diverse organisms D. Marine Ecosystems – oceans, saltwater
- through evaporation provides majority of earth’s precipitation; separated into distinct zones
1. intertidal zone – narrow band where ocean meets land
a. communities constantly changing as a result of disturbance (or tides) C. Transitional Aquatic Ecosystems – combination of 2 or more different aquatic environments; where land & water come together or saltwater & freshwater meet 2. lakes & ponds
a. temperature varies based on the season
b. divided into 3 zones based on amount of sunlight that penetrates the water
area closest to shore is littoral zone
limnetic zone – open water, well lit, dominated by plankton
profundal zone – deepest area in large lake, colder & less oxygen A. Water on earth
1. the planet is largely covered with water
2. it supports many biological communities
a. freshwater, transitional & marine aquatic ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems – grouped based on water flow, depth, distance from shore, salinity & latitude C. Other Terrestrial Areas
Found throughout the world, but do not fit into biome definition
1. mountains change with increasing elevation
a. such as temperature & precipitation
2. Polar regions – border tundra at high latitudes & are cold all year 3. climate – average weather conditions in an area including temperature & precipitation
a. elevation, continental landmass & ocean currents also affect climate
b. differences in climate affect the location of a biome A. Effects of Latitude & Climate
1. weather – is the condition of the atmosphere at a specific place and time
2. The distance of any point on the surface of earth north or south of the equator is latitude
a. climate determined by unequal amounts of solar radiation received at different latitudes 2. secondary succession – predictable change takes place after a community has been removed but soil remains intact
a. changes include fire, flood or windstorm
Communities of organisms change over time and at different rates
3. human activities affect successions b. climax community – develops from bare rock to establish a mature community 1. Primary succession – establishment of a community in an area of exposed rock that does not have any topsoil 4. limiting factors – any abiotic or biotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction or distribution of organisms 2. bioremediation – use of living organisms to detoxify a polluted area

3. biological augmentation – adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem B. Protecting Biodiversity
1. in the United States
a. National and State Parks
b. nature reserves

2. internationally
a. 7% of the world’s land set aside in some type of reserve
b. Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage sites 2. nonrenewable resources – found in limited amounts or process to replace takes an extremely long time
a. fossil fuels
b. mineral deposits

3. sustainable use – using resources at a rate which they can be replaced or recycled d. eutrophication – substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorous flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth c. acid precipitation – sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air
Removes calcium, potassium and other nutrients from the soil 5. Fragmentation of habitat
a. separation of an ecosystem into small pieces of land
b. reduces the opportunities for individuals in one area to reproduce with individuals from another area B. Factors that threaten biodiversity
1. current high rate of extinction is due to the activities of humans
2. Natural resources – all materials and organisms found in the biosphere
a. minerals
b. fossil fuels
c. plants and animals
d. soil
e. clean air and water Threats to Biodiversity
Human activities reduce biodiversity in ecosystems

A. Extinction Rates
1. background extinction – gradual process of species becoming extinct
a. natural process 3 Types
1. genetic diversity – variety of inheritable characteristics or genes in an interbreeding population
a. increases chances of surviving changing environmental conditions Biodiversity & Conservation 1. wetlands – saturated with water & support aquatice plants
a. includes marshes, swamps & bogs
2. estuaries – formed where freshwater from a river merges with salt water from the ocean 1. rivers & streams
a. flow in one direction & characteristics change from source to mouth
b. sediment – material deposited by water, wind or glaciers
c. fast-moving rivers prevent accumulation of sediment & have fewer species living in them
d. insect larvae primary food source in slow-moving water B. Freshwater ecosystems – includes lakes, streams, rivers only about 3% of water on Earth is freshwater 9. Tropical rain forest – warm temperatures & rainfall all year
a. avg. precipitation: 200-1000 cm per year
b. temp. range: 24 to 27° C
c. geographic location: Central & South America, South Asia, West Africa, and Northeastern Australia
d. abiotic factors: humid all year, hot & wet 8. tropical seasonal forest – deciduous & evergreen trees
a. avg. precipitation: more than 200 cm per year
b. temp. range: 20 to 25° C
c. geographic location: Central & South America, Asia, Africa, and Australia
d. abiotic factors: rainfall is seasonal 7. Tropical savanna – grasses, few trees, climates receive less precipitation than other tropical areas
a. avg. precipitation: 50-130 cm per year
b. temp. range: 20 to 30° C
c. geographic location: South America, Africa, and Australia
d. abiotic factors: summers hot winters cool & dry 5. Temperate grassland – fertile soils able to support thick cover of grasses
a. avg. precipitation: 50-89 cm per year
b. temp. range: -40 to 38° C
c. geographic location: North & South America, Asia, Africa, and Australia
d. abiotic factors: summers hot, winters cold, moderate rainfall; fires possible 4. Temperate woodland & shrubland – areas with less annual rainfall than temperate forests
a. avg. precipitation: 38-100 cm per year
b. temp. range: 10 to 40° C
c. geographic location: surrounds Mediterranean Sea, western coast of North & South America, South Africa and Australia
d. abiotic factors: summers very hot winters cool & wet 2. Boreal Forest – northern coniferous (evergreen) forest or taiga
a. avg. precipitation: 30-84 cm per year
b. temp. range: -34 to 21° C
c. geographic location: northern part of North America, Europe & Asia
d. abiotic factors: summers short winters long, cold & dry 1. Tundra – treeless biome with a permanently frozen soil below the surface called permafrost
a. average precipitation: 15-25 cm per year
b. temperature range: -34 to 12° C
c. geographic location: south of polar ice caps in the Northern Hemisphere
d. abiotic factors: soggy summers, permafrost, cold & dark most of the year a. forming soil
i. Lichens (fungus & algae) begin to grow on the rock and secrete acids that help break down rock
ii. When these organisms die along with sediment from rocks, forms the first stages of soil
iii. Small weedy plants and insects become established & as those organisms die more soil is created 5. range of tolerance – upper and lower limits that define the conditions in which an organism can survive
a. tolerance – organisms ability to survive biotic and abiotic factors 1. biological community – group of interacting populations that occupy the same area and at the same time
2. organisms depend on each other for survival
3. organisms adapt to conditions in which they live
a. changes in abiotic factors A. Communities Communities, Biomes & Ecosystems A. Natural Resources – consumption rate is not evenly distributed
Higher rate in developed countries

1. renewable resources – replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed
a. solar energy
b. animals
c. clean air and water Conserving Biodiversity Biological Magnification of DDT 3. overexploitation (excessive use) – factors increasing current rate of extinction for species that have an economic value
a. bison
b. passenger pigeons – now extinct
c. ocelots and white rhinoceros – brink of extinction Intertidal Zone Three Lake Zones 6. Deserts – annual evaporation is higher than annual precipitation
a. avg. precipitation: 2-26 cm per year
b. temp. range: high 20 to 49° C
low -18 to 10° C
c. geographic location: every continent except Europe
d. abiotic factors: varying temperatures, low rainfall 3. Temperate forest – broad-leaved, deciduous trees (shed leaves in autumn)
a. avg. precipitation: 75-150 cm per year
b. temp. range: -30 to 30° C
c. geographic location: south of boreal forests
d. abiotic factors: well-defined seasons; summers hot, winters cold B. Major Land Biomes
Biomes are classified by their plants, animal species, & climate Ecosystems on land grouped based on plant communities

reminder: biome – a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate & have similar types of communities
Terrestrial Biomes - change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing abiotic and biotic factors B. Ecological Succession
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