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The Not So Simple Life of Filters

Loreal and Mary Therese - Chemistry ISU 11U
by

Mary V

on 10 June 2013

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Transcript of The Not So Simple Life of Filters

The Not So Simple Life of Filters Article By: Michael Tinnesand
Presentation By: Mary Loreal and Mary Therese There are many types of filters used to purify, and separate particles and substances from one to another. What are filters? Filters are Used In:
-laboratory experiments
-making coffee/tea
-purifying water and air The filter paper is used in many lab applications. -a device with specifically sized pathways

-certain substances and particles can pass through while others can't

-this separates the components of a solution (ex: a solute from the solvent) "A filter is simplicity itself" FILTERS Types of Filters Ceramic Filters Polyester Filters Filter Papers Reverse Osmosis
Filters -the thickness and density of the filter paper fibers can be changed

-this alters the size of the pathways tea bag under a microscope Filters can also be made out of glass. -glass pellets or fibers are packed into a mold and heated at increased pressures.

-the glass will soften, and begin to stick together where it then starts to form a mass called a frit. This process creates pathways in the glass

-the thickness, size and density of the fibers will determine the size of the pathways The same process can be used with metal beads or fibers. fibers of a glass filter Glass Filters GRAVITY Filters rely on gravity to move
materials across the membrane ....but particles can get stuck in the pathways! Vacuum Filtration - a heavy-duty flask is connected to a funnel.

-the flask is connected to a device that acts as a slight vacuum

-this pulls the liquid though the filter paper Yay! Problem solved. Other ways to overcome clogged pathways in filters are: -using a centrifuge to artificially increase the force of gravity -creating a cross-flow to sweep
the pathways -change the pore size of future filters Microfiltration. Particles that are as small as one tenth of a micrometer can be filtered by the use of nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis filtration. Microfilters:
-used in water purification
-filter out bacteria

Nanofilters:
-filter out large molecules
from smaller ones Before we understand the process of reverse osmosis, let's understand the concept of diffusion and osmosis! Reverse Osmosis is the ultimate filter! Let's review what we learned. Diffusion -is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration into an area of lower concentration.

Osmosis - is a type of diffusion that involves water as a solvent. Isotonic - equal osmotic concentration Hypertonic - high osmotic concentration Hypotonic - low osmotic concentration Solubility Types of Mixtures A homogenous mixture is any combination of substances that is uniform throughout

A heterogeneous mixture is any combination of substances that physically distinct substances with different properties Because a heterogeneous mixture is not a uniform solution, a filter aids in the separation those components. It helps out by sorting out the solute from the solvent. WATER QUALITY Adding onto producing better-tasting water, water filtration can reduce contaminants

An area that endures a lot of precipitation, be it rain or snow can affect the water quality by run-offs that is why water quality serves as a large filter for healthy drinking water provided in homes.

To the fact that raw water is drawn from the lake. Filtered, cleaned and treated water can ensure safe drinking water to homes Water Treatment Purification and Separation Air Quality Pre-Treatment -pumped and stores to prevent any more contamination
-remove large particles
-storage to allow natural biological filtration to occur
-pH adjustments to make sure the water pH is at a neutral 7 Treating water take many stages to be passed through to be fully treated and safe to drink

Chemicals are to assist the removal of particles in water, also to sanitize and treat the water from bacteria The hypotonic solution will
filter out its solvent to the hyper
tonic solution in attempt to make both
solution isotonic. http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/facilities/multimedia/uploads/alberta/dif.html
Reverse Osmosis
-make our solvent (water) filter out of our high concentrate into the lower concentrate solution.

-instead of creating balance, the solute is filtered out of the solvent Osmosis - high to low concentration The difference in concentration of different solutions are what the success of reverse osmosis is dependent on.

We learned that the more solute there is (per L) in a solution, the more concentrated it is.

We also learned about saturated, super saturated, and unsaturated solutions.
Air filters are used in homes and other buildings to extract pollutants such as dust mites, pollen, bacteria, mold, and more from the atmosphere.

They are also used in cars to filter the air going into the combustion chamber. dust mites Like previously mentioned, we use filters to purify water and air. They also separate the impurities found within other substances by holding them from passing through a filter's pathways. air filter water filter oil filter We take clean water for granted. life straw hamster ball-shaped Solarball "Life Sack" water purifying bike. http://www.charitywater.org/whywater/ Filters may seem very simple, but that is because they were made to create simplicity for us

Sometimes created in very complex manner

The not so simple aspect is the changed in their pores and their purpose to filter many different particles

They very in many types: nanofilters, osmosis, RO, air filters, water filters etc. Filters Considering less than a quarter freshwater (2.5/70%)
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